Aerial Apparatus Fireground Operations

  Aerial Apparatus Fireground Operations Instructor Guide Session Reference: 1Topic: Aerial Apparatus Fireground Operations References:• IFSTA -Aerial Apparatus Driver/Operator Handbook, 2nd Edition (2009)• Essentials Of Fire Fighting, 5th...

  C. Venting with an aerial ladder

    1. Position and sequence

      a. Turntable can be spotted for maximum effectiveness

      b. When wind blowing across face of building and exposures located close to downwind side, turntable should be spotted just upwind of closest exposure

      c. If building relatively wide, apparatus should be positioned closer to center of building

      d. Window furthest downwind should be opened first and ladder worked back into wind

      e. If next lower floor also to be opened with ladder, top floor should first be opened completely

    2. Knocking out windows

      a. First step in knocking out double hung window is to extend ladder tip through upper section

      b. Ladder should be extended far enough to push away obstructions

      c. After tip extended into upper section, ladder should be lowered to break through window frame and glass in lower section

      d. Extend ladder tip through top center of picture window and then lower to sill to clean out most glass

      e. Operator must constantly observe ladder tip to make sure proper penetration into window and be able to retract promptly if it becomes engulfed in flame

      f. Be extremely careful not to damage ladder while using for venting

      g. If ladder is extended too far into window, it might jam into ceiling and get stuck

      h. Ladder can be damaged if operator tries to break through window frame made of steel or some other strong material

      i. If window must be approached from acute angle, only inside truss should be used to break glass

      j. Precautions must be observed when narrow windows are being knocked out

      k. Ladder tips should never be forced through opening

    3. Safety

      a. Large amounts of glass and debris will fall to ground

      b. Shards of glass and chunks of debris can slide down ladder

      c. In strong winds, shards of glass can scale good distance - know building is being vented and stay clear of immediate area

      d. Timing especially important if windows over entrances must be knocked out

      e. Crews caught unexpectedly in shower of glass and debris should keep heads down and arms close to sides - do not look up and move close to wall, seek protection in doorways and under overhangs, and proceed when safe

V. Operations Using Aerial Apparatus (1-5)

  A. Lifting personnel and equipment

    1. When crews climb ladder carrying line, tip of ladder should be placed even with sill of window - to one side

    2. Entire window might have to be removed to provide sufficient access

    3. Remove window if opening not large enough to allow easy entry

    4. Section of hose can be tied to ladder before raising

      a. Nozzle, center of hose, and first coupling tied to first rung

      b. If additional hose needed, carry rope and hose roller to hoist it

    5. Can be used to lift sections of hose to fire fighters already in building

    6. Hose and appliances can be lifted in baskets

    7. Aerial lift usually must faster than climbing and carrying equipment, especially above third or fourth floor

  B. Using hose as portable standpipe

    1. Platform raised to window or balcony and hose connected into outlet

    2. Ladder used to haul one end of 2-1/2- or 3-inch hose up in building

    3. Hose should be pulled onto floor and secured to window sill

    4. Operations can be carried out with water thief

    5. Portable standpipes increase effectiveness of operations when fire floor is not more than two or three stores above maximum reach of aerial unit

VI. Elevated Streams (1-6)

  A. Introduction to Elevated Streams

    1. One of most important uses of aerial unit is to provide elevated stream for attack or exposure protection

    2. Can be effectively directed into or onto upper parts of tall buildings

    3. Also useful on large, sprawling structures, outside storage yards, piers, ships and other areas where height and reach provide access to fire or exposure