Aerial Apparatus Fireground Operations

  Aerial Apparatus Fireground Operations Instructor Guide Session Reference: 1Topic: Aerial Apparatus Fireground Operations References:• IFSTA -Aerial Apparatus Driver/Operator Handbook, 2nd Edition (2009)• Essentials Of Fire Fighting, 5th...

      b. Aim at upper part of room where concentration of heat greatest and then sweep downward

      c. Place solid stream nozzle so stream enters window at upward angle to allow stream to strike ceiling, break up, and spread water over wide area

      d. Direct solid stream straight into window when maximum penetration most important consideration

      e. Never direct stream at floor from position above window

      f. To be most effective, stream should be moved horizontally back and forth across fire area - also move up and down for maximum coverage

      g. In heavy smoke, look for steam and white smoke as indications that stream penetrating fire area

      h. If visual check not feasible, listen for sound of stream hitting building and look for heavy water runoff

    3. Wind and thermal updraft effects

      a. Sometimes aerial stream adversely affected by thermal updraft

      b. Might also be affected by wind blowing across stream or toward aerial unit

      c. If fog stream broken up by winds or thermal updrafts, adjust nozzle to narrower pattern

      d. Consider moving nozzle very close to building or, if fire situation prevents this, replace fog nozzle with large solid stream nozzle

    4. Weakened structures

      a. If structure shows signs of having been weakened, aerial unit must be moved away

      b. If fog stream is being used, check to see if stream is reaching; if not, replace with solid nozzle

    5. Shutdown - aerial streams should be used only as long as fire, stream, or white smoke visible in area covered by streams

    6. Improper use of streams

      a. Roof holes

        (1) Aerial streams should not be directed into hole burned through roof or opened for venting

        (2) To protect roof from ignition, direct stream onto roof near opening

        (3) When roof collapses, could be that only aerial streams able to control fire in area of collapse

      b. Interior handlines

        (1) Aerial streams should not be directed into area in which crews operating with handlines

        (2) When properly coordinated, aerial streams can be used in conjunction with handlines

        (3) Adequate ventilation increases effectiveness and decrease hazards of coordinated operations

  D. Aerial Streams for Exposure Coverage

    1. Outside Exposures - spaces between buildings and unpierced fire walls major deterrents to exposure fires

    2. Exposure hazards

      a. Crews must be familiar with potential exposure problems

      b. Should also be cognizant of factors that affect severity of outside exposure problem

        (1) Recent weather

        (2) Present weather, especially wind

        (3) Spacing between fire and exposures

        (4) Building construction materials and design

        (5) Intensity and size of fire

        (6) Location of fire

        (7) Availability and combustibility of fuel

        (8) Size of fire force

        (9) Fire fighting equipment on hand

      c. Worst combination would be recent dry weather, strong winds blowing toward exposures, area of closely space frame buildings, severe fire difficult to reach, plenty of easily ignited materials located between fire building and exposures, limited personnel and apparatus response on first alarm, and poor water supply

      d. First alarm assignments should be reviewed periodically for fire force and equipment response

      e. Where exposure hazards great, number of companies responding on first alarm should be increased

    3. Exposure protection

      a. Choosing the stream

        (1) Fog streams more effective than solid streams for exposure protection

        (2) Solid streams should be used when distance, wind, or thermal updraft a factor

        (3) Greater intensity of fire, heavier the aerial exposure stream needed

        (4) If water supply a problem, smaller, adequately supplied, stream more effective than weak stream from larger nozzle