Winter Operations

Winter Operations Topic: Winter Operations Time Required: Two Hours Materials:    · Appropriate Audio-Visual Support References:    · Emergency Care, Eighth Edition, Brady    · Essentials of Fire Fighting...


Winter Operations

Topic: Winter Operations

Time Required: Two Hours

Materials:

   · Appropriate Audio-Visual Support

References:

   · Emergency Care, Eighth Edition, Brady

   · Essentials of Fire Fighting, Fourth Edition, IFSTA

PREPARATION:

Motivation:

Objective (SPO): 1-1

The individual will demonstrate a basic knowledge of winter operations and the precautions that need to be considered to provide for the safety of personnel, from memory, without assistance, to a written test accuracy of 70%.

Overview:

Winter Operations

   · Types of Winter Conditions

   · Personal Protection

   · Vehicle Concerns

   · Scene Operations

Winter Operations

SPO 1-1 The individual will demonstrate a basic knowledge of winter operations and the precautions that need to be considered to provide for the safety of personnel, from memory, without assistance, to a written test accuracy of 70%.

EO 1-1 Identify types of winter conditions that could affect emergency services operations.

EO 1-2 Identify personal protective measures that need to be considered during winter operations.

EO 1-3 Identify vehicle concerns that need to be considered in preparation for and during winter operations.

EO 1-4 Identify scene operation concerns that need to be considered during winter operations.

In many parts of the United States, the winter months mean times of colder temperatures and wintery precipitation. These conditions call for special precautions so that service providers can respond in a safe and efficient manner. This drill should be an interactive discussion with everyone having the opportunity to participate. The outcome should be a better understanding of any special measures that must be taken for winter operations.

I. Types of Winter Conditions (1-1)

A. Lower Temperatures

  1. Icy conditions

  2. Frost

  3. Wind chill resulting in even lower temperatures

  4. Greater reliance on heating systems

      a. Forced hot air or electric heat

      b. Space heaters

      c. Fireplaces

  5. Reduced physical endurance

B. Inclement Weather

  1. Snow or sleet

  2. Freezing rain

  3. Overcast skies

  4. Combination of wintery conditions

C. Shorter Periods of Daylight

D. Decreased Visibility Due to Precipitation

II. Personal Protection (1-2)

A. Clothing

  1. Layers of clothing

  2. Socks or other warm footwear

  3. Spare gloves

  4. Underclothing when responding at night

  5. Protective clothing worn completely and correctly

  6. Water repellant footwear

  7. Water repellant outerwear for EMS responders

  8. Footwear with good traction

  9. Extra socks and mittens available at the scene to replace damp ones or for those who do have

      them

  10. Extra clothing may affect ability of personnel to perform tasks

  11. Dress as if you are going to outside for a long period--you might be

B. Protect Crew

  1. Rotate crews to have fresh and warm personnel

  2. Rehab

      a. Place to rest and rehydrate with warm fluids

      b. Place to warm up

          1) Apparatus cabs

          2) Ambulances

          3) Heavy rescue units

          4) Buses

  3. Monitor health conditions

      a. Hypothermia

      b. Frostbite, especially on fingers and toes

  4. Stay dry and warm

      a. Outer shell of protective clothing absorbs water and can freeze

      b. Protective hoods absorb moisture including body perspiration

      c. Remember that the body loses heat a lot faster with wet clothing than dry

  5. Equipment problems

      a. Cold air from SCBA cylinders

      b. Freezing of facepiece exhalation valves

  6. Going from a fire and high heat environment to a overhaul or rehab environment - drastic changes

      in atmospheric temperature

III. Vehicle Concerns (1-3)

A. Vehicle

  1. Heating system providing heat in passenger area

  2. Cooling system maintaining motor cooling level

  3. Preventing freezing in pumps and water tanks (may require special measures such as transmitting

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