Ropes, Knots and Rigging

Rescue Refresher Session Reference: 1 Topic: Ropes, Knots, and Rigging Time Required: Three Hours Materials: 25 foot length of rope for each student webbing, harnesses, carabiners, figure eights ascenders, pulleys, prussic cords...


      b. NFPA Class II/ANSI Class IV - seat-style for rescue

      c. NFPA/ANSI Class III – full body

      d. ANSI Class IV - sit

NOTE: Only full body harnesses should be used when there is any likelihood that the rescuer will be turned upside down.

C. Carabiners

  1. Constructed of steel or aluminum

  2. Used for connecting rope or webbing to objects or other pieces of rope or webbing

  3. Types

      a. Steel - 6,700 lbs. tensile strength

      b. Aluminum - 5,500 lbs. tensile strength

D. Figure Eights

  1. Constructed of aluminum

  2. Used for descent control or equipment collection (attaching several carabiners)

  3. 20,000 lbs. tensile strength

E. Ascenders

  1. Constructed of aluminum

  2. Used for descent control or as part of a mechanical advantage system

  3. 2,500 lbs. tensile strength

NOTE: Caution students that most manufacturers do not allow ascenders to be used in systems over 1,000 lbs.

F. Pulleys

  1. Constructed of aluminum

  2. Used as part of a mechanical advantage system or to change direction of pull

G. Blocks

  1. Constructed with shells of wood or steel

  2. Used as part of a mechanical advantage system or to change direction of pull

  3. May be single or multiple sheave

H. Prussic Cords

  1. Formed using 7/16-inch kernmantle rope

  2. End connected together using double fisherman knot

  3. Used in place of ascenders to control descent or as part of a mechanical advantage system

I . Slings

  1. Formed from nylon webbing with end generally sewn to form eyes

  2. Used to secure rope to anchor point or object being moved

 

IV. Anchor Points (1-1-4)

A. Selection of anchor points

  1. Fixed objects

  2. Building components

  3. Apparatus (sturdy components)

  4. Picket systems

B. Anchoring to objects

  1. Single point

  2. Tensionless

  3. Multiple points

NOTE: Instructor should review each method of anchoring.

 

V. Reeving Blocks (1-1-5)

A. Used with rope to form block and tackle

B. Use proper size block for rope being used

C. Review reeving each type

  1. Two over two

  2. Three over three

  3. Two over three

D. Snatch block used for change of direction

 

VI. Other Mechanical Advantage Systems (1-1-6)

A. Used in place of or with block and tackle

B. Requires less rope

C. Review constructing each type

  1. Z-Rig

  2. Piggy-back Z-rig

 

VII. Practical Exercise To Evaluate Skills Proficiency

A. Set up three practical skills stations with an evaluator at each station to observe skills proficiency. Divide the class evenly into three groups. Allow no more than thirty minutes for each group at each station.

B. Station 1 - Knots and anchoring to objects

  1. Have each student tie the following knots with safety knot

      a. Water knot

      b. Bowline

      c. Clove Hitch

          1 ) Clove Hitch around an object

          2 ) Clove hitch over an object

          3 ) Split clove hitch

      d. Figure Eight family

          1 ) Figure Eight

          2 ) Figure Eight on a bight

          3 ) Figure Eight reweave

          4 ) Figure Eight bend

  2. Have each student demonstrate the following methods of anchoring to an object

       a. Single point with rope and webbing

       b. Tensionless with rope

       c. Multiple points

NOTE: The knot tying and anchoring can be done in conjunction with one a n o t h e r.

C. Station 2 - Reeving blocks

  1. Divide the students into pair and have each pair of students demonstrate reeving each of the

      following block combinations

      a. Two over two

      b. Three over three

      c. Two over three

  2. Have the students demonstrate securing a snatch block to a fixed object and passing a rope

      through it

D. Station 3 - Constructing other mechanical advantage systems

  1. Divide the students into groups of no more than three and have each group demonstrate reeving

      each of the following using both prussic cords and ascenders

      a. Simple Z-rig

      b. Piggyback Z-rig

  2. Have the students demonstrate using the Z-rig to move an object