Terrorism Awareness for the First Responder

Terrorism Awareness for the First Responder Time Required: Two Hours Materials:    · Appropriate Visuals and Projection Equipment References:     · Emergency Response to Terrorism: Basic Concepts, U.S. Department of Justice...


  2. Generally operate as if the incident were a hazardous materials incident where you function within

      the training and equipment limitations of the responders

  3. A terrorist event other than a bombing may not appear to or be dispatched as a terrorist event

       a. Chemical or biological releases may be EMS calls for sick people

       b. Fire or hazardous materials alarms may appear routine rather than motivated by a terrorist

       c. Realization of a terrorist event from a biological agent may take some time to become evident

           because symptoms are delayed and potential victims have dispersed from the agent release area

 

III. Potential Terrorist Tools (1-3)

A. Categories of Harm

  1. Categorized into one of six areas

       a. Thermal

       b. Radiological

       c. Asphyxiation

       d. Chemical

       e. Etiological

       f. Mechanical

  2. Acronym is TRACEM

  3. B-NICE (Biological, Nuclear, Incendiary, Chemical, Explosive) is incorporated into TRACEM

B. Thermal Harm

  1. Both heat and cold

  2. Burning liquids or metals like magnesium

  3. Cryogenic materials such as liquid oxygen

  4. Mechanical, electrical, or chemical device

  5. Each incendiary device consists of an igniter or fuse, a container or body, and an incendiary

     material for filler

C. Radiological Harm

  1. Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation

  2. Use or threatened use of a nuclear bomb

  3. Detonation of a conventional explosive incorporating nuclear materials

D. Asphyxiation

  1. Lack of oxygen due to displacement by heavier than air vapors

  2. Depletion of oxygen by a chemical reaction such as burning

E. Chemical

  1. Toxic or corrosive materials such as acids, caustics, and toxic substances (nerve agents, pesticides,

      and other chemicals)

  2. Nerve agents include tabun, sarin, soman, and V agents

  3. Vesicants or blister agents include mustard, distilled mustard, nitrogen mustard, and lewisite

  4. Blood and choking agents include hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride, chloride, and phosgene

  5. Irritants include mace, capsicum pepper spray, tear gas, and dibenzoxazapine

F. Etiological (disease-causing) Materials

  1. Bacteria such as anthrax

  2. Rickettsia (Q fever) viruses such as hemorrhagic fever

  3. Toxins such as ricin or botulinus

G. Mechanical

  1. Any type of mechanical harm causing trauma

2. Includes gunshot wounds, bomb fragments or shrapnel, and slip, trip, and fall hazards

IV. Scene Size Up (1-4)

A. Initial Considerations

  1. Quickly and accurately evaluate the incident area and determine the severity of danger

  2. Once the magnitude is realized, attempts to isolate the danger can begin

  3. Establish control zones early to enhance public protection efforts and better facilitate medical

      treatment efforts

       a. When response resources are limited, isolating the hazard area and controlling a mass exodus of

           panicked and contaminated people will overwhelm first responders

       b. Terrorists may still be lurking nearby waiting for responders to arrive, or could be among the

           injured

       c. Anticipate the potential for multiple hazard locations which may require defining outer and inner

          operational perimeters

       d. Controlling the scene, isolating hazards and attempting to conduct controlled evacuations are

           resource intensive

       e. After a bombing, access to the scene may be limited due to rubble or debris

  4. Consider the safety of emergency response personnel first

B. Control Zones

  1. Recognizing and evaluating dangers is critical to implementing control zones

      a. Take time to perform an adequate size up

      b. Better to over-estimate the zone size than underestimate

  2. Control zones may be influenced by

      a. Form of releases agent - solid, liquid, vapor

      b. Weather conditions especially wind velocity and direction

      c. Amount and type of resources on-hand