Terrorism Awareness for the First Responder

Terrorism Awareness for the First Responder Time Required: Two Hours Materials:    · Appropriate Visuals and Projection Equipment References:     · Emergency Response to Terrorism: Basic Concepts, U.S. Department of Justice...

     d. Capability of available resources (equipment and training)

      e. Size and configuration of incident

      f. Stability of incident

  3. Establish standard control zones and control access

      a. Hot or exclusion zone for exceptional access (area of immediate release)

      b. Warm zone or contamination reduction corridor

      c. Cold or support zone for staging

      d. May need to establish a zone beyond the cold zone to control the public and separate them from

          emergency responders

  4. Because of the potential for secondary and tertiary events, control zones should be mapped to

      allow for expansion of boundaries should incident escalate

        a. Topography

        b. Structures and landmarks

        c. Access and egress points

        d. Perimeter boundaries

        e. Changes in weather conditions

  5. Using detection and monitoring equipment to substantiate effective control zone boundaries is


       a. Responders must attempt to identify clean areas as well as hazardous areas

       b. Radiological detection equipment is available for nuclear incidents

       c. Hazardous materials teams may be needed to detect the presence of other materials

  6. Isolation and stand-off distance considerations

      a. Identify the problem from incident information and outward warning signs and detection clues

      b. Decision making for isolation is based upon

          1) Potential of harm to life, critical systems, and property

          2) Topography

          3) Meteorological factors

          4) Resources available to implement tactical operations

       c. Access the 2000 Emergency Response Guide (ERG) to determine initial isolation and

           protection distances

       d. With limited information, use ERG guide page 111

       e. When responders suspect radioactive materials, the use of detection equipment is essential in

           determining isolation distances


V. Strategy and Tactics (1-5)

A. Always approach the scene using protective clothing and equipment including SCBA

B. Be alert for outward warning signs that may indicate the type of danger present

  1. Casualties resulting from no apparent reason

  2. Signs and symptoms indicating chemical exposure

  3. Obvious signs of criminal activity such as weapons on the scene

  4. Pre-incident verbal or written warnings

C. Properly stage vehicles

  1. If practical, position first arriving units and responders upwind and uphill

  2. Direct other units to approach from upwind and uphill if possible

  3. Avoid stacking units where they interfere with each other's evacuation route

  4. Avoid line-of-sight staging with suspected explosive devices

  5. Strictly enforce staging instructions

  6. Consider having units back into position so that they can leave the scene efficiently

D. Avoid vapor clouds, mist, and unknown liquids

E. Initially, assign at least one team to observe ongoing activities surrounding the operating position to observe any criminal activity or the potential for a secondary event

F. Plan tentative escape routes and refuge assembly points

G. Prepare for emergency decontamination on arrival and during all phases of the incident

H. Scene safety is the responsibility of the incident commander

  1. Incident commander must ensure that no one else gets hurt beyond those injured or killed on arrival

  2. First responders are the first safety consideration followed by the public

  3. Keep eyes and ears open for changes in incident

I. Ask questions to get more information on potential problem

  1. What happened prior to arrival (vapor clouds, odors, spills or leaks, etc.)

  2. What did observers see

  3. Was there anything suspicious (people, vehicles, containers)

  4. Were there any indicators of the presence of a product such as dead plants or animals, victims with

       medical emergencies, chemical reactions