EMT-B Pharmacology

  Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute Drill of the Month – March 2002 EMT-B Pharmacology Instructor Guide Topic: EMT-B Pharmacology Time Required: Three Hours Materials:    · Oxygen delivery system...

      3. Proper noun so name is capitalized

  B. Generic Name

      1. Original chemical name

      2. Often used as the name of the medication

               a. nitroglycerin

      3. Name is not capitalized

      4. Listed in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)

  C. Prescription Medications

      1. Requires physician order

      2. Distributed by pharmacist

  D. Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medications

      1. Purchased directly from retail source

      2. Many prescription medications now available OTC

               a. Zantac


III. Routes of Administration (1-3)

  A. Intravenous (IV) injection

        1. Injected directly into a vein

        2. Enters the bloodstream immediately

        3. Fastest way to deliver a medication

        4. Not all medications can be given IV

                 a. aspirin, oxygen

  B. Oral

        1. Per os (PO)

                 a. taken by mouth

        2. Enters bloodstream through digestive system

        3. May take up to 1 hour

  C. Sublingual (SL)

         1. Under the tongue

         2. Enters the bloodstream through the oral mucous membrane

         3. Generally in system within minutes

         4. Example is nitroglycerin tablets

  D. Intramuscular (IM) injection

         1. Injected into the muscle

         2. Quick absorption due to muscle’s blood vessels

         3. Some medications may be slow release from the muscles

         4. Not all medications can be given IM

                  a. tissue damage

                  b. uneven, unreliable absorption

  E. Intraosseous (IO)

         1. Injected into the bone

         2. Enters the bloodstream through the bone marrow

         3. Requires drilling a needle into the bone

                  a. very painful

                  b. may be used in unconscious patients from cardiac arrest or shock

                  c. most commonly used in children

  F. Subcutaneous (SC) injection

         1. Injected beneath the skin

                   a. in tissue between skin and muscle

         2. Absorbed very slowly

         3. Effects of medication lasts longer

         4. Example is daily insulin shot

  G. Transcutaneous

         1. Enters through the skin

         2. Produces a slow, long-lasting effect

         3. Examples are nitroglycerin and nicotine patches

  H. Inhalation

         1. Medication is inhaled into the lungs

         2. Relatively quick absorption

         3. Some medications work in the lungs

         4. Minimizes the effects on other body tissues

         5. Comes in many forms

                a. aerosols

                b. fine powders

                c. sprays

  I. Per rectum (PR)

          1. Delivered by the rectum

          2. Often used with children

                  a. easier administration

                  b. more reliable absorption


IV. Medication Forms (1-4)

  A. Tablets and Capsules

       1. Most adult medication comes in this form

        2. Capsules

                  a. gelatin shell

                  b. if powder filled

                       1) shell can be pulled apart

                  c. if liquid filled

                        1) shell is sealed

                        2) shell usually soft

         3. Tablets

                 a. compressed under high pressure

                 b. medication of mixed with other materials

                 c. some dissolve very quickly

                        1) sublingual nitroglycerin