EMT-B Pharmacology

  Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute Drill of the Month – March 2002 EMT-B Pharmacology Instructor Guide Topic: EMT-B Pharmacology Time Required: Three Hours Materials:    · Oxygen delivery system...

                d. most dissolve slowly in the digestive system

  B. Solutions and Suspensions

        1. Solution

                a. liquid mixture

                b. made up of one or more substances

                c. cannot be separated by filtering or allowing to stand

               d. can be given by almost any route

        2. Suspension

               a. solids are ground into fine particles

               b. distributed through a liquid by shaking or stirring

               c. solids will not dissolve in the liquid

               d. will separate if filtered or allowed to stand

               e. must be shaken prior to administration

               f. usually administered orally

  C. Metered-Dose Inhalers

        1. Used to administer very small droplets or particles

        2. Absorbed through the lungs

        3. Delivers the same dose every time

        4. Usually suspensions

              a. must be shaken well before use

        5. Commonly used in respiratory illnesses

  D. Topical Medications

        1. Applied to the skin surface

              a. affect only that area

        2. Lotions

        3. Creams

        4. Ointments

        5. Contain various liquids, oils, medications

              a. absorption rates vary

  E. Transcutaneous Medications

         1. Transdermal medication

              a. designed to be absorbed through the skin

              b. usually intended for systemic or whole-body effects

              c. EMTB can absorb them also

                     1) nitroglycerin paste

             d. also applied with adhesive patches

                     1) nitroglycerin

                     2) nicotine

  F. Gels

        1. Semi-liquid substance

        2. Administered orally

        3. Generally the consistency of paste or creams but are clear (transparent)

  G. Gases for Inhalation

        1. Neither solid nor liquid

        2. Most commonly used is oxygen


V. Medications Carried on Ambulances (1-5)

(Much of the information in this section is Maryland specific. It is important that you always comply with your EMS system protocols.)

  A. Activated Charcoal

        1. Indications

               a. poisoning by mouth

        2. Actions

               a. adsorb some poisons

                       1) bind them to the surface of the charcoal

               b. prevent absorption by the body

               c. suspension often contains Sorbitol

                        1) complex sugar

                        2) acts as a laxative to move substance through the digestive system

          3. Adverse Effects

                a. may indirectly induce vomiting

                b. may cause nausea

           4. Precautions

                a. does not absorb all drugs

                b. does not absorb all toxic substances

          5. Contraindications

                a. altered mental status

                b. patients who have received an emetic

                c. ingestion of acids or alkalais

         6. Dosage

                a. administration requires Medical Consultation

                b. adult

                      1) 1 gram/ kg or

                      2) 0.5 gram/lb

                c. pediatric

                      1) 1 gram/ kg or

                      2) 0.5 gram/lb

           7. Administration