EMT-B Pharmacology

  Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute Drill of the Month – March 2002 EMT-B Pharmacology Instructor Guide Topic: EMT-B Pharmacology Time Required: Three Hours Materials:    · Oxygen delivery system...


                            3) may be accomplished through several small administrations

            7. Administration

                      a. assess patient

                      b. place glucose on tongue depressor between gum and cheek or

                      c. patient self administers between gum and cheek

                      d. perform ongoing assessment

                      e. record name, dose, route and time of administration

  D. Oxygen

           1. Indications

                      a. all medical patients

                      b. all trauma patients

           2. Actions

                      a. enhances cell function

                      b. prevents hypoxia

            3. Adverse Effects

                      a. high concentration may reduce respiratory drive in COPD patients

                                 1) monitor carefully

            4. Precautions

                      a. never withhold oxygen from anyone who needs it

                      b. give with caution to COPD patients

                      c. simple or partial rebreather face masks must supply minimum of 6 lpm

                      d. non-rebreather face masks must supply minimum of 12 lpm

            5. Contraindications

                      a. none

             6. Dosage

                     a. adult

                           1) 12 – 15 lpm via nonrebreather mask or

                           2) 2 – 6 lpm via nasal cannula, unless otherwise directed

                     b. pediatric

                           1) 12 – 15 lpm via nonrebreather mask or

                           2) 2 – 6 lpm via nasal cannula, unless otherwise directed

             7. Administration

Device

Flow Rate

Concentration

Nasal Cannula

2-6 lpm

24-44%

Venturi Mask

Variable

24-50%

Partial Rebreather Mask

6-10 lpm

35-60%

Simple Face Mask

6-10 lpm

35-60%

Pocket Mask

12-15 lpm

50-60%

Non-Rebreather Mask

12-15 lpm

80-100%

Bag Valve Mask

12-15 lpm

90-100%

  E. Epinephrine Auto-Injector

            1. Indications

                     a. moderate to severe allergic reaction with respiratory distress

                     b. mild allergic reaction with history of life-threatening allergic reaction

                     c. pediatric patients with severe asthma

            2. Actions

                     a. increases heart rate

                     b. increases blood pressure

                     c. decreases muscle tone of bronchiole tree

                     d. dilates passages in lungs

                     e. constricts blood vessels

            3. Adverse Effects

                    a. tachycardia/palpitations

                    b. angina

                    c. headache

                    d. nausea/vomiting

                    e. dizziness

                    f. hypertension

                    g. nervousness/anxiety

                    h. tremors

           4. Precautions

                    a. requires Medical Consultation in pregnant patients unless

                          1) patient is in severe allergic reaction

                          2) patient is in severe asthma