Bloodborne Pathogens Refresher

PREPARATION: MOTIVATION: OBJECTIVE (SPO): 1-1 The individual will demonstrate the basic knowledge required to recognize the presence of bloodborne pathogens and the precautions that can be taken to protect against them, from memory, without...

            a. Herpes - causes infection to the skin and mucus membranes

            b. Meningitis

                  1) Transmitted by oral and nasal secretions

                  2) Incubation period 2 to 10 days

                  3) Causes a severe infection to the coverings of the brain and spinal cord

           c. Tuberculosis

                  1) Transmitted by respiratory secretions, airborne or on contaminated objects

                  2) Incubation period 2 to 6 weeks

                  3) Predominantly affects the respiratory system

          d. Hepatitis

                  1) Transmitted by blood, stool, or other body fluids, or contaminated objects

                  2) Incubation period weeks to months depending on type

                  3) Causes viral infection of the liver

          e. HIV

                  1) Transmitted by infected blood via intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual conduct,

                       blood transfusions, or (rarely) accidental needle sticks

                  2) Incubation period several months or years

                  3) Attacks the white blood cells and destroys the body's ability to fight infection

           f. Other diseases such as measles, mumps, and chicken pox which may pose a serious risk for

               adults, especially if they have not been immunized against them

  C. Exposure Control

       1. The OSHA regulation requires that the employer develop an Exposure Control Plan

       2. It should include the following elements

            a. Exposure determination

            b. Schedules and methods for implementing elements of 29 CFR 1910.1030

            c. Procedures for evaluating exposure incidents

      3. Safety requirements in advance - suggested immunizations

            a. Hepatitis B vaccine

            b. Verification of immune status with respect to commonly transmitted contagious diseases

            c. Access or availability of immunizations in the community

  D. Body Substance Isolation

      1. Handwashing

      2. Eye protection

            a. If prescription eyeglasses are worn, removable side shields can be applied to them

            b. Goggles

      3. Gloves

            a. Vinyl or latex needed for contact with blood or bloody body fluids

            b. Should be changed between contact with different patients

            c. Heavy-weights and tear-resistent gloves must be worn when cleaning the ambulance and

               soiled equipment

                     NOTE: Some providers may have a latex allergy. Vinyl or other synthetic gloves may

                     also be required.

       4. Gowns - needed for large splash situations such as major trauma

       5. Masks

              a. Surgical type for possible blood splatter

              b. N-95 or High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) respirator if patient suspected for or

                 diagnosed with tuberculosis

              c. Airborne disease - surgical-type mask (worn by patient)



  A. Universal Precautions

         1. Disposable gloves - required when blood or other body fluids are present or likely to be


                a. A separate pair of gloves should be used for each patient being treated

                b. Care should be taken to avoid contact with the outside surfaces of the gloves

                c. Care should taken when touching equipment or supplies that have been exposed

         2. Surgical-type masks - may be needed when there is a potential for exposure to splashing