An Analysis of Effective Fire Streams - Part 1

The "Fire Stream Triangle" shows the three major elements required for an effective fire stream to effect the knock down of a fire.For the handline stretch to be effective, it must deliver enough water to effect extinguishment and do so in a way that...

One note about this article, it is not a rehash of the fog verse smoothbore nozzle debate. It simply emphasizes that higher flows at relatively lower nozzle reactions is safer and more efficient.

The second part of this series continues with our study of effective fire streams. Part 2 goes into some depth regarding effective reach, needed fire flow, and the need for adequate staffing.


  • Fornell, David P. Fire Stream Management Handbook. Published by PennWell Publishing Company, 1991.
  • For additional techniques for controlling nozzle reaction, as well as a host of other water supply topics, the reader should take a look at Layin' The Big Lines by Paul Shapiro

ARMAND F. GUZZI, Jr. has been a member of the fire service since 1987 and is a career firefighter with the Fire Department of the City of Long Branch, NJ. Armand is also an instructor with the Monmouth County, NJ, Fire Academy and he has a master's degree in management and has undergraduate degrees in fire science, education, and business administration. You can reach Armand by e-mail