The reduction of structure fires, coupled with errors on the fireground and inadequate skills shows the need for consistent training on engine company operations.
A fundamental basic to any successful fireground operation is a successful initial hoseline stretch. It seems simple enough, so why should we drill on it so much? Three main reasons:
- Errors in the initial stretch have resulted in firefighter injuries and fatalities
- We go to fewer fires
- Repetition builds confidence and proficiency
Errors Can Be Deadly
On March 21, 2003 Cincinnati Firefighter Oscar Armstrong died while participating in the advance of the initial handline at a single-family dwelling fire (Type III, 30-by-20 feet). Engine 9 arrived and front sleeved a hydrant across the street from the fire building. The engine officer and three firefighters stretched a 350-foot 1 3/4-inch handline to the front door while the driver made his connections. Finding the front door locked they proceeded to stretch the line to the rear but were stopped and redirected to the front by District Chief 4.
One firefighter left the line to retrieve an axe. Assisted by a firefighter from Engine 2, the Engine 9 officer and Firefighter Armstrong prepared to enter the structure. As the officer calls for water the front door is forced. The officer calls a second time for water and then, removing his facepiece, he goes to the engine to determine the problem. The driver replies that water is started and it can be seen that the lengths close to the engine are charged. A pile of hose is found among landscaping in front of the structure. As the officer and the driver begin to flake out this line Firefighter Armstrong, the other Engine 9 firefighter and the firefighter from Engine 2 advance their dry (on their end) lengths approximately 12 feet into the structure and radio for water.
The other firefighter from Engine 9 goes back to the front door and sees his officer chasing kinks and the line filling with water. As he returns to the nozzle, the first floor is involved in a flashover. He and the firefighter from Engine 2 are able to make it to the front door. The officer, mistaking the firefighter from Engine 2 as one of his own, believes all his members are safely out. Firefighter Armstrong is separated from his handline and removed from the structure 10 minutes after initial entry.
At the point the fire is extinguished, it took a 150-foot 2-inch handline from a second alarm engine, stretched through the rear Side Charlie yard to knock down the fire on the first floor. A 200-foot 2 1/2-inch handline was stretched to knock down fire on the second floor.
It doesn't stop at simply running the correct length line. We need to be aware and look for kinks and pinch points. Members need to look at the line as they make their way towards the fire building. Is it kinked up and in a pile? Is it snug under a car tire? Did it catch onto a bike or some landscaping and become buggered up? A swift kick with a foot or a toss with the hand may remedy the situation, but we have to look for it as we advance.
The correct size line is another part that plays into a successful fireground. The age old slogan "big fire equals big water" might be missing the mark with some firefighters. What is "big?" If your working fire experience (different than fireground experience) is limited, "big" to you might be venting out two windows in a private dwelling. "Big" to some of you might be a whole apartment unit off, or a whole store in a strip mall. Instead of relying on a relic of past firefighting, utilize the following acronyms to have a better size-up for the initial stretch as well as when to use the 2-inch or 2 1/2-inch handline.
For Size-up: BELOW
B = Building
E = Extent of fire
L = Life hazard
O = Occupancy
W = Water
For 2-inch and 2 1/2-inch Handlines: ADULTS
A = Advanced fire
D = Defensive operations
U = Undetermined location
L = Large building
T = Tons of water
S = Standpipe
We Go To Fewer Fires
What this means is that with less current and repetitive experience fighting fire, we: