Understanding Fire Research

Most of the improvements in the fire service are based on research which may be the result of incident or series of similar incidents or the need for improvement. Session Reference: Topic: Understanding Fire Research Time Required: 2 Hours...

         • Refinement of piecing nozzles

         • Variable gallonage nozzles to meet flow requirements

         • Low pressure nozzles

         • Increased GPM nozzles flow to take advantage of larger size attack lines

     • Hose

         • Large diameter hose for supply lines in place of 2-1/2-inch and 3-inch lines

         • 1-3/4-inch and 2-inch to increase flow over 1-1/2-inch lines

         • Standardized couplings to increase interoperability

         • Synthetic fabric to reduce the need for drying

     • Aqueous film forming form (AFFF)

         • Increased shelf life over protein foam

         • Good penetrating capabilities

         • Spreads vapor-sealing film over and floats on hydrocarbon fuels

         • May be more versatile

         • Can be used with conventional nozzles

     • Thermal imaging technology

         • Improves visibility in smoke-filled environment

         • Reduces search time

         • Can be used to detect hot spots as well as locate victims



      • Fully enclosed cabs

          • Provides a safer passenger transport area

          • Removes personnel from weather elements when responding or returning

          • Better opportunity to hear radio transmissions

          • Better opportunity for communications between officer and personnel

          • Provides an area where personnel can be seated and restrained while apparatus

            is in motion

          • Noise reduction

     • Emergency lighting placement

          • Improves visibility in traffic

          • Potential for reducing accidents involving emergency apparatus

          • Improves safety at the emergency scene

      • Other safety features

          • Rollover protection for apparatus

          • Vehicular operation and handling (center of gravity)

          • Layout and placement of equipment on apparatus for ease of access and removal

          • Various safety systems such as airbags, open door or compartment warnings,

            color coded seatbelts, unbuckled seatbelt warnings, etc.



     • Professional development through the development of standards to establish

       minimum training levels based on job requirements with consideration for personal


           • NFPA 1001, Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications

           • NFPA 1002, Fire Apparatus Driver/Operator Professional Qualifications

           • NFPA 1006, Rescue Technician Professional Qualifications

           • NFPA 1021, Fire Officer Professional Qualifications

           • NFPA 1041, Fire Service Professional Qualifications

           • NFPA 472, Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials


     • Training techniques

           • Realistic training based on standard operating procedures

           • Simulation using computer-based technology

           • Training props to enhance comprehension of material

           • Skills development and maintenance especially basic skills

           • Knowledge and skills evaluation to determine satisfactory completion of training

           • Techniques used to deliver training

      • Training materials

           • Standardized materials based on professional qualifications standards and

             generally accepted practices and techniques

           • Audio-visual materials to support training

           • Realistic training props