Ground Ladder Basics for Effective Operations

Jeffrey Pindelski reviews the effective use of portable ladders, which are often under utiltized at structure fire scenes.

A ladder that is too long or too short will often force us to work off an angle that can be unsafe and bigger ladders will often require more manpower to place and raise them.

Ladders are one of the most basic and important tools that we utilize on the fireground. As with all basic equipment, tools and techniques, training should take place on a continual basis to ensure that skills are sharp and efficient. Not only should this apply to "truckies", but all firefighters that will work on the fireground, with high importance stressed for fire companies that may function as a Rapid Intervention Team.

Ladder selection is often times confusing for a firefighter. A ladder that is too long or too short will often force us to work off an angle that can be unsafe and bigger ladders will often require more manpower to place and raise them. In recruit school we are taught that ladders are supposed to be ideally placed at a working angle of 75 degrees with the base of the ladder in a position that is away from the building one-quarter the distance of the height that the ladder is raised.

We all know from practical experience that this is not the case when we are operating on the fireground. Our better judgment is what will guide us to correctly select and position the ladder in a hurry. To make a decision on which ladder is best to take, a quick "down and dirty" method that has been passed along is that the number of the floor that the ladder needs to go to must be the number times ten on the ladder as a minimum. Example: if a ladder is to go to a third floor window, a ladder of more than 30 feet will be needed - the selection of the ladder will then be dependent on what size ladders are available on your apparatus.

Important to remember is that the ladder must also be placed at an angle to work off of which will also diminish it's reach. Normally the best choice of standard sizes carried in this example would be the 35-foot extension ladder. This method may not provide for the most ideal climbing or working angle but it will help us choose a ladder that will work in a "pinch". Important points to remember when selecting ground ladders are that it can be assumed as a general rule that each floor within a residential structure can be estimated to be 10 feet in height with windows being an additional three to four feet from the floor and commercial structures will have 12 feet or more between floors with windows four feet or more from the floor. Again these are just generalizations; some residential structures are now being built with cathedral/vaulted ceilings that may be as high as 18 feet or more. The best bet is to learn the buildings in your community and have a "mental preplan" prior to being called at 3 a.m. for an actual incident where quick decisions may mean the difference.

Once the ladder is selected, it will also need to be placed properly so that it can be used in the correct manner. There are many thoughts and opinions out there regarding ladder placement and they are all probably applicable depending upon the situation in which the ladder is being used. What is paramount however is that it is realized that the tip of the ladder be placed at or just below the window sill when it will be used for rescue purposes. In this position it is easier for interior teams to place victims onto the ladder for the exterior rescuer and it helps keep firefighters and victims low in the window where they will be below heat and smoke.

This same point needs to be stressed for Rapid Intervention Teams that may place ladders proactively on the fireground to serve as egress points for interior crews. An incorrectly placed ladder can prevent a firefighter that may have to "bail" in a hurry from being able to exit due to the profile created by their self contained breathing apparatus or heat and fire conditions. Ladders placed at window sills for egress should also be placed at an angle that will allow firefighters to exit in a controllable manner.

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