TOPIC: BACK TO BASICS: EFFECTIVE VENTILATION
TIME REQUIRED: THREE HOURS
MATERIALS: ACQUIRED STRUCTURE OR VENTILATION PROPS, VARIOUS HAND AND POWER TOOLS, VENTILATION EQUIPMENT , SMOKE GENERATION EQUIPMENT
REFERENCES: ESSENTIALS OF FIRE FIGHTING, FOURTH EDITION, IFSTA, CHAPTER 10
MOTIVATION: Ventilation is an essential element of almost any firefighting operation. Removal of smoke, heat, and hot gases can make is easier to see potential victims, reduce potential harm to victims, reduce the stress to firefighters, and assist with fire control and extinguishment.
OBJECTIVE (SPO): The student will demonstrate a basic understanding of the methods and techniques of ventilation by applying those ventilation methods and techniques in a practical setting.
* Ventilation theory
* Ventilation techniques in various structures
* Horizontal ventilation practical
* Vertical ventilation practical
SPO The student will demonstrate a basic understanding of the methods and techniques of ventilation by applying those ventilation methods and techniques in a practical setting.
EO 1-1 Explain horizontal and vertical and natural and forced ventilation.
EO 1-2 Describe ventilation techniques in various types of structures.
EO 1-3 Demonstrate the proper procedure for placing fans and blowers for positive and negative pressure ventilation in a door or window.
EO 1-4 Demonstrate the proper use of various hand and power tools to force entry through a roof for ventilation.
The purpose of this drill is to review and build on basic skills with the emphasis on improving efficiency and teamwork. It is assumed that the participants have some basic knowledge of the subject matter. The focus of the drill should include personal and team safety. The drill should include minimal instruction and maximum skills practice. The drill should also be conducted with the normal staffing that would respond on an engine, truck, or squad on a structure assignment.
I. VENTILATION THEORY (1-2)
A. Ventilation Techniques and Theory
1. Hot air rises using the path of least resistance and spreads or mushrooms out and downward
2. Natural ventilation utilizes existing opening such as windows and roof openings
3. Mechanical ventilation utilizes smoke ejectors or blowers
4. Hydraulic ventilation utilizes nozzles and water flow air currents
5. Ventilation requires the movement of air which means that there must be air containing smoke, heat, and gases being removed with the replacement of fresh air
B. Importance and Timing of Ventilation
1. Coordinate with fire attack since the increase in air flow will accelerate burning
2. Ventilation removes smoke and heat and increases visibility
C. Horizontal Ventilation
a. When time and conditions permits, windows should be opened rather than broken out (it may be better to remove a window to relieve heat and smoke rather than leave them in place for positive pressure ventilation, especially when there is a known rescue)
b. Double hung windows should be opened one-half down from the top and one-third up from the bottom (textbooks say two-thirds but there are only two sections in most double hung windows and they will only open half way)
c. Open other types of windows as much as possible
d. Storm windows must also be opened or removed
e. Shades, blinds, drapes, curtains, and other window coverings must be moved away or removed to avoid obstructing air flow
f. When wind is a factor, windows on leeward side should be opened first
2. Window and roof ventilation
a. When roof or roof features must be opened for venting, windows on top floor should be opened
b. If windows on several floors must be opened, begin on top and work down
c. Opening windows from below first may cause fire and smoke spread
3. Smoke ejectors
a. Cannot be used as a substitute for natural ventilation techniques