Notice that so far we have been talking about shape and heat anomalies. We have not been discussing the exact shade of gray. Why? Quite simply, because when it comes to rescue, shape is everything. Firefighters need to train to recognize shapes in grayscale. The shade is not as important as the shape. It is the relative shade, along with the shape, that will help you identify victims. Keep this as a key point in your training.
Most fire departments do not have regular access to live fire buildings. As a result, most search drills involve looking for real people in stable environments. Since people are 90-95? F, and most rooms in which they might practice are 60-80? F, drill victims are usually shown as white on the screen of the TI. Make sure you are training to notice the shape, and not the "white" of the victim. In a real fire, the victim is not going to be the hottest object in the picture, so he will be gray or black on the screen. Remember to look for heat anomalies; that is, areas of warmth or coolness that are in an obvious place (on a bed) or in an unusual place (under a bed).
If the rapid intervention team uses TIs, it is critical they understand the issue of shape vs. shade. If the RIT is searching only for a white object to indicate a firefighter, the team may miss the member in need. In addition, RIT members should expect to view only portions of a firefighter in trouble. The member being rescued may have been pinned in a collapse, or may have taken refuge from high heat. The RIT needs to search for the anomalies that might indicate a firefighter.
Tips for search and rescue training
To ensure that you and your firefighters are making your search and rescue TI training as helpful as possible, consider the following:
- Because realistic training is often the best, use the TI in high-heat environments whenever possible.
- In high-heat environments, follow NFPA 1403 recommendations and use rescue dummies as victims.
- To reinforce that firefighters are looking for anomalies and shapes, alternate your victims in low-heat environments: use live victims, heavily clothed live victims, and rescue dummies.
- To emphasize the search for shapes and anomalies, as well as challenge your teams, have victims hide in bathtubs, under beds, behind chairs, etc.
- For realism, as well as to emphasize the search for shapes and anomalies, have firefighter victims in RIT drills partially covered by simulated debris.
- Be proactive rather than reactive: develop your departmental SOG/SOPs for TIs and searches before you need them.
In conclusion, remember that the TI is a great tool for searches. Your goal in searching with the TI is to look for shapes and heat anomalies. Heat anomalies or unusual shapes must be investigated properly. Remember that even though most of your training will show victims as white on the screen of the TI, chances are that in real life they will be gray. TIs do not change victim behavior: prepare for searches in closets, under beds, and behind furniture. Most importantly, though, you need to stay safe and remember the basics!
Jonathan Bastian is a Thermal Imaging Specialist for Bullard. He is certified as a thermal imaging instructor by the Law Enforcement Thermographers' Association (LETA). He is also the author of the FD Training Network "FireNotes" book, Thermal Imaging for the Fire Service. Bastian served 12 years on the North Park, IL, Fire Department, including the last three as a captain. He has taught classes on thermal imaging, rapid intervention teams and search and rescue operations. He is currently a police officer in Lexington, Kentucky. If you have questions about thermal imaging, please send them to firstname.lastname@example.org.