Aerial Apparatus Fireground Operations

Session Reference: 1 Topic: Aerial Apparatus Fireground Operations Time Required: 3 References:    • Truck Company Fireground Operations, Second Edition, Chapters 2, 8, And 11    • Essentials Of Fire Fighting, Third...

                  shut-off valve between ladder pipe hose and siamese if siamese not gated

            (6) Ladder raised, and pipe aimed and charged - pipe should be charged before moved

                 toward fire

             (7) Fire fighter operating halyards should be positioned on turntable

C. Aerial Streams for Fire Attack

  1. Nozzles

      a. Fog streams more effective if can reach seat of fire

      b. Solid streams have longer reach and can penetrate further

      c. Both fog and solid nozzles rated according to water flow in gallons per minute - either type will

          lose effectiveness if not supplied with at least rated flow

       d. Pipe should be fitted with proper size as well as proper type of nozzle

  2. Stream placement

      a. To direct fog stream through window, place nozzle at approximate center of opening and set at

          30-degree angle

      b. Aim at upper part of room where concentration of heat greatest and then sweep downward

      c. Place solid stream nozzle so stream enters window at upward angle to allow stream to strike

          ceiling, break up, and spread water over wide area

       d. Direct solid stream straight into window when maximum penetration most important


       e. Never direct stream at floor from position above window

       f. To be most effective, stream should be moved horizontally back and forth across fire area - also

          move up and down for maximum coverage

       g. In heavy smoke, look for steam and white smoke as indications that stream penetrating fire area

       h. If visual check not feasible, listen for sound of stream hitting building and look for heavy water


  3. Wind and thermal updraft effects

      a. Sometimes aerial stream adversely affected by thermal updraft

      b. Might also be affected by wind blowing across stream or toward aerial unit

      c. If fog stream broken up by winds or thermal updrafts, adjust nozzle to narrower pattern

      d. Consider moving nozzle very close to building or, if fire situation prevents this, replace fog nozzle

           with large solid stream nozzle

  4. Weakened structures

      a. If structure shows signs of having been weakened, aerial unit must be moved away

      b. If fog stream is being used, check to see if stream is reaching; if not, replace with solid nozzle

  5. Shutdown - aerial streams should be used only as long as fire, stream, or white smoke visible in

       area covered by streams

  6. Improper use of streams

      a. Roof holes

          (1) Aerial streams should not be directed into hole burned through roof or opened for venting

          (2) To protect roof from ignition, direct stream onto roof near opening

          (3) When roof collapses, could be that only aerial streams able to control fire in area of collapse

       b. Interior handlines

          (1) Aerial streams should not be directed into area in which crews operating with handlines

          (2) When properly coordinated, aerial streams can be used in conjunction with handlines

          (3) Adequate ventilation increases effectiveness and decrease hazards of coordinated operations

D. Aerial Streams for Exposure Coverage

  1. Outside Exposures - spaces between buildings and unpierced fire walls major deterrents to

       exposure fires

  2. Exposure hazards

       a. Crews must be familiar with potential exposure problems

       b. Should also be cognizant of factors that affect severity of outside exposure problem

           (1) Recent weather

           (2) Present weather, especially wind

           (3) Spacing between fire and exposures

           (4) Building construction materials and design

           (5) Intensity and size of fire

           (6) Location of fire