When considering live fire training, safety should be the first and foremost concern of all involved. The training environment is the one area in which the instructor can control is the type of structure being used, the amount of fuel, and the evolutions to be performed. NFPA 1403 provides guidelines that aid the instructor in assuring that training is performed in a safe environment. It should be noted that NFPA 1403 provides the minimum requirements for training in live fire conditions. The Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) has the ability to make more stringent rules and I encourage this, however they should not adopt a practice or procedure that is less than the minimum requirements.
It is important to have student that are participating in any exercise with live fire be trained to the NFPA 1403 requirements. Prior to being permitted to participate in live fire training evolutions, the student shall have received training to meet the job performance requirements for Fire Fighter I in NFPA 1001, Standard for Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications, related to the following subjects:
· Fire behavior
· Portable extinguishers
· Personal protective equipment
· Fire hose, appliances, and streams
· Water supply
· Forcible entry
The following job performance requirements from NFPA 1001 should be used as guidance related to the list of subjects in (4.1.1) (also, 5.1.1, 6.1.1, 7.1.1, 8.1.1):
· 5.2.3 Radio use
· 5.3.1 SCBA
· 5.3.4 Forcible entry
· 5.3.6 Ground ladders
· 5.3.7, 5.3.8 Fire extinguishment
· 5.3.9 Search and rescue
· 5.3.10 Structural fire fighting
· 5.3.11 Horizontal ventilation
· 5.3.12 Vertical ventilation
· 5.3.13 Overhaul
· 5.3.15 Water supply
· 5.3.16 Fire extinguishers
· 5.3.17 Scene illumination
· 5.5.1 Tool maintenance
· 5.5.2 Fire hose care and maintenance
Students participating in a live fire training evolution who received the required minimum training specified in from other than the authority having jurisdiction shall present written evidence of having successfully completed the prescribed training prior to being permitted to participate in any live fire training evolution.
According to NFPA 1403, an instructor is an individual qualified by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) to deliver firefighting training, who has the training and experience to supervise students during live fire training evolutions. From there, the AHJ should use NFPA 1041, Fire Service Instructor Professional Qualifications, to start the process in determining if an instructor has the proper training and experience to supervise students in a live burn evolution. There is a difference between the learning environment and an emergency incident. There should be no surprises while performing a live burn evolution.
An inexperienced or untrained instructor can cause potential mishaps in a live fire training session. Failure to have true situational awareness about the entire event especially the areas you are responsible for and the impact of others actions can be detrimental to the training event. It is important that we look to seasoned and experienced instructors to lead these type of training exercises and pairing less experience individuals with these experience instructors as apprentices. Untrained or otherwise unprepared instructors have contributed to injuries and even fatalities in live fire training events. NFPA 1403 nor NFPA1041 are clear on the specific requirements to become a fire service live fire training instructor, so there is not a standard of what needs to known to be a live fire training officer. A number of regional or local training centers, as well as several states, have training programs to regulate this. The program in the state of Florida is legally required for all instructors participating in live fire training, and even requires state issued instructor certification in addition to the training course. The International Society of Fire Service Instructors (ISFSI) has also put out a Live Fire Instructor Certification. For more details visit www.isfsi.org.