Recently completed confined space rescue training, and I quickly learned that mastering knots and rope skills is a very important tool for rescue work. For my course we had the following knots in our taskbook:
- Figure 8 Stopper
- Figure 8 on a bight
- Figure 8 Follow Thru
- Figure 8 Bend
- Square Knot
- Overhand Bend
- Double Fisherman Bend
- 3-wrap Prusik
- Modified Trucker Hitch
- Basket Sling
- Single Loop Anchor Sling
- Wrap 3 Pull twice
Since my class I have practiced these knots along with a few others like the bowline and munter hitch.
So I was just wondering if you seasoned folks could add any additional knots to include in our rescue toolbox?
Also, one other question, what knot would you suggest for tying off a standard figure 8 descender, the ones without the ear bends?
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Thread: All about knots
02-03-2012, 03:00 PM #1
All about knots
02-03-2012, 03:09 PM #2
02-03-2012, 05:05 PM #3
02-03-2012, 06:20 PM #4
You are correct, it is a way to put a loop anywhere in a line. This is an omnidirectional not, meaning it can be loaded in either direction. This could be used for a secondary attachment to a stokes basket, or in the instance of confined space two rescuers can be on the same main line clipped into two different locations along the line via a butterfly.Shawn M. Cecula
IACOJ Division of Fire and EMS
02-03-2012, 07:21 PM #5
Thanks, yeah I like that knot. When I was in confined space training this instructor made a rope basket to haul up a heavy box, I always wondered (and was impressed) how he did that. I wonder if it was a combo of the butterfly and others?
I tried posting an image of my butterfly knot to see if I did it correctly, guess I don;t have enough post to do so
02-05-2012, 12:34 AM #6
- Join Date
- Oct 2008
- Wellington, New Zealand
some other knots that you may want to use could also be the clove hitch - both pre-formed and standard, round turn and two half hitches, the munter hitch - good to use for belays of a single load, tensionless hitch - can be used for an anchor etc.. and also the hasty harness using webbing can be a good one..
DavePorirua, Wellington, New Zealand.
Volunteer Appliance 312
02-06-2012, 06:30 PM #7
Sorry if this was to much of a newbie post. I did in fact buy some webbing for home practice, and I did learn the full body hasty harness described in this video (The first one):
One thing I wondered, I notice the guy uses the front as the line attachment point, it would seem to me the portion near the back where the first carabiner was placed would make a good attachment point. Your thoughts?
02-06-2012, 07:10 PM #8
- Join Date
- Feb 2005
- West Point, VA
02-06-2012, 07:43 PM #9
02-07-2012, 12:34 AM #10
So here are my burning questions. What level class was this (Level I, Level II)? What prerequisites were required for your confined space class? I ask this because Confined Space is a higher level of training that usually requires a pretty good knowledge of ropes, systems, rigging, force multipliers, patient packaging, ICS and haul commands... the list goes on.
I have nothing against getting as much training exposure as possible. Cool, great, get it. Just trying to wrap my head around giving a person a Confined Space Rescue class before a Rope class.
Anyways, acquire these skills, continue to practice them. Knots and ropes are only a small part of Confined Space, but skill sets that are easily lost if not continually practiced.~Drew
USAR TF Rescue Specialist
02-07-2012, 01:26 AM #11
Sorry that came off as rough. Confined Space is one of the things I am passionate about. Like I said, great to get whatever training they throw at you.
The knot list between your list and those added is pretty standard. Didn't see water knot, but I am sure you got it since you mentioned webbing.
Start to reach out further than knots. Look into anchors, systems and devices that make them up, critical angles.
-Radium Release Hitch
-Tandem Triple Wrap Prussick Belay (TTPB)
-Load Sharing Anchors
-Load Equalizing Anchors
-Wrap Three, Pull Two
-Two Tension Rope Systems (TTRS)
-Single Tension Main - Untensioned Belay (STM-UTB)
-Compound and Complex Mechanical Advantage Systems
-Force Multipliers on changes of direction over 120 degrees.
I don't know what patient packaging systems you used. SKED/OSS is about the best for Confined Space. Other considerations;
-LSP/ Miller Halfback
-Stokes or Ferno
-Hasty Loop Harness
USAR TF Rescue Specialist
02-07-2012, 12:23 PM #12
Anyways, I may not have gone through all the steps that most may have , but don't think I don't take this job any less serious than anyone else that is more seasoned. I take this position very serious and that is why I am here trying to learn more and be the best that I can be.
Not to sound wackerish, but in order to learn my craft, I have purchased a full RPM setup, minus the mariner. I have an Anchor plate, a fig 8 belay device, and several biners, along with 8mm and 11mm cord. I bought all this stuff so I could practice my skills in my free time. In fact, using a hasty harness, I have done a few high angle descents on my own using a friends roof and chimney.
So, my whole reason to posting here was to learn from you much more experienced folks.
02-07-2012, 12:34 PM #13
Last edited by MichaelXYZ; 02-07-2012 at 12:58 PM.
02-07-2012, 09:51 PM #14
I'll try to address the new questions.
Rescue Tech is what is now being called Level II per NFPA 1006. 1670 still addresses the team response levels as Awareness, Operations and Tech. The change took place in 2008, many places are just catching up.
With the Radium Release... insure you tie the munter so it feeds into the system from the outside, if you are feeding it in between the munter and the first bite it will jam up. Also "Dasiy Chain" the excess cord, start from the free end and work back to the RRH so it plays out into the system. 30 meters of cord is a bit much... we built ours with 33 feet.
Correct, TTPB is just a set of prussicks on the load side of a Prussick Minding Pulley, use a load release (RRH, Mariner, Jigger) between pulley and anchor.
A load sharing anchor does not relate to an anchor plate. Instead, using two anchors you connect them in the middle. Done either when your anchors don't line up with the hole nicely or you are dealing with marginal anchors. Load equalizing differs only in the fact that as the load is moved side to side, the anchors are equally sharing the weight, while a load sharing might see one anchor seeing all the weight at odd angles. Understanding angle force multipliers helps here. For example at 120 degrees a load sharing/equalizing anchor will see both anchor points seeing 100% of the load. At 150 degrees it becomes 200% each, 170 d sees 600%. Understanding this could be critical.
Keep rolling, go to different classes, keep expanding your rescue skill sets.~Drew
USAR TF Rescue Specialist
02-07-2012, 11:24 PM #15
- Join Date
- Mar 2006
- Southern California
I would add a "Double Figure 8" I believe it's called. Looks like a Figure 8 on a bight with (2) bights. Makes for a great harness for lowering. It's actually really comfortable when sized correct."Be LOUD, Be PROUD..... It just might save your can someday when goin' through an intersection!!!!!"
Life on the Truck (Quint) is good.....
Eat til you're sleepy..... Sleep til you're hungry..... And repeat.....
02-08-2012, 06:54 PM #16
along with the butterfly knot, I also use the Inline figure 8 a lot because its directional... And with your webbing a water knot is essential.."....train as if your life depends on it, because one day it could.."
.....Leather Head N6A
Tillerman..... The best job in the FD!!!
02-09-2012, 12:05 AM #17
Mike- there would be another thing to get familure with; Efficency Loss and System Safety Factors.
Knots are the weak point in a rope. End to end, most ropes are rated around 9000lbs MBS. A knot subtracts from that 9000lbs rating due to sharp bends used to form the knot. It can range from 18% loss to over 38%, depending on the knot. Each additional knot is NOT added to the loss to find the new load rating, only minus for the least efficent knot. In class room you can work the numbers to find the theroretical load rating, we use quick feild math on the job, and just minus 30% for any knot.
The System Safety Factor (SSF) adds in other equipment (like a prussick or caribeener) and finds the weakest link in the system. The ratio of Weakest Link to Load (usually 600lbs for General Load) gives you the SSF, expressed as a ratio. Say a looped assesory cord is used in your system, let's give it a 5000lbs MBS. Your two person load is always estimated at 600lbs. That gives you an 8:1 SSF. We shoot for a 7:1 in our systems.
To give you a perspective on SSF's an airplane is built to a 1.1:1 safety factor. If it requires 10 rivits to hold a plane together they'll put 11. A boat has a bit more, 1.5:1, so if it requires 10 bolts, they'll put in 15. Anything over a 1:1 SSF should hold, and if your system goes below 7:1 it is not unsafe, 7:1 is just what we aim for.~Drew
USAR TF Rescue Specialist
02-09-2012, 04:24 AM #18
Very excellent, and useful information. Thank you. The other thing I think I need to work on is reading up on the regulations, not exciting but important none the less...
02-10-2012, 05:19 AM #19
I thought I would share a rope tip. When cutting rope, a knife leaves a messy edge, even using a lighter does not clean the end so well. I had one of those old woodburning kits lying around and it came with an exacto blade insert. So, I heat up the iron with the exacto and it cuts right through the rope and leaves a nice clean cut...
Note: Have not tried it on anything larger than 8mm cord.
02-11-2012, 07:14 PM #20
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