1. #1
    Firehouse.com Guest

    Post SOP's for Volunteer FD

    I am looking for input on creating some SOP's for our volunteer fire department. The volunteer department that I belong to has 20 members, one station and is in a small rural community(1000 people). We run fire and rescue calls, most of which are in rural areas. I hope everyone had a safe and happy holiday season. Thanks!

  2. #2
    Firehouse.com Guest


    Hi. We are a small dept. in Missouri not much larger than yours with about as many members I would be glad to share any information with you that you may be looking for. If you would like to e-mail me with a specific list on anything my address is gmljd@aol.com and I will help out any way I can, by the way we just went through doing them all over because we just became a tax supported district. We had to rework almost all of them so feel free to ask. Mike

  3. #3
    Firehouse.com Guest


    ruml - I know what we went through to find some when our dept. started!! Our dept.is similar to yours in size and location, but we don't run rescue. We'll be glad to share our SOP's with you - may be you can use them as a "starting point" anyway. An e-mail response will get them to you!!

    God is our Fire Chief;
    Jesus is our Incident Commander.

  4. #4
    Firehouse.com Guest


    I'm in an almost identical situation as you. Best thing I've done so far was to go to the USFA website. In their publications there's a manual called "Developing effective SOPs for fire and EMS departments." It's a great starting point. If you do get any helpful hints, please email them to me and I'll return the favor if I can. USFA has a link on the FEMA website, www.fema.gov, if you go to look for it.

  5. #5
    Firehouse.com Guest


    Here is an Ideas that you might want to think about. Remember what you are thinking about. SOP are Standard Operating Procedures. That means that is how it will be done. No leway. We use Standard Operating Guidlines. These are suggestions. These give some room for personell judgment.

    There was a fire department out there some where that ran into a problem in court. They went to a structure fire in a building that had a sprinkler system. Well we all kmnow that most place state about 100 PSI. Well they varied from thire SOP and used more water. They were hoping that this would help in the fire suppression before they made entry. As we all know this can cause what. WATER DAMAGE. Well they case went to court and the fire department lost because someone made the call and used more water. This is why some departments make them Standard Operating Guidlines. This way if someone makes a different call, they might not get in as much trouble.

    So if you want you might want to consider SOG instead of SOP.

    Also ask other FD's to review thiers. If you would like I could Send you a base of ours.

    Fire Doc

    Keep your head below the smoke but in the game.
    The opinions expressed here are my own and not that of my fire department or of the United States Military.

  6. #6
    Fire Line
    Firehouse.com Guest


    This site has a complete set of Sops. Easily adaptable to your situation. Hope this helps.

  7. #7
    Firehouse.com Guest


    Here are our fire attack sops




    Table of Contents
    Acountability 1
    Apartment Fires 2-3
    Attic Fires 4-5
    Auto Fires 6
    Basement Fires 7-8
    Boat Fires 9
    Chimney Fires 10
    Flammable Liquid Fires 11
    Fuel (Gasoline/Diesel) Smell or Leak 12
    Garage Fires 13-14
    Grass Fires 15
    Hazardous Materials Incidents 16-17
    Hazardous Materials Check Off Sheet 18
    House Fires - Single-Story 19
    House Fires - Multi-Story 20-21
    Mobile Home Fires 22
    Natural Gas Leak or Spill 23
    Roof Fires 24
    Shopping Center Fires 25-26
    Sprinkled Building Fires 27
    Structure Fires - General 28-33
    Vehicle Accidents 34-35
    Extrication Points 36
    Vehicle Extrication Steps 37
    Wires Down 38
    Appendix A Radio Procedures A1
    Multiple Calls A2
    Appendix B General Responsibilities: B1
    Incident Commander B1
    Operations B1
    Staging B2-B3
    Appendix C Mutual Aid C1
    M/A Resources Sheet C2
    M/A Response Information C3
    M/A Response List C4
    County M/A Guidelines C5
    County M/A Operational Areas C6
    Appendix D Serious Injury/Dearth D1

    All Fires
    1. Give name of person in charge: Chief Miller in command.
    2. Give command post location: 4th and Elm
    3. Give general fire conditions:
    Type of structure: 2 1/2-story house
    Building construction: Wood frame
    Length, width, height: 25’ x 30’ x 20’
    Percent involvement: Smoke showing, nothing showing, 30% involved, etc.
    Victims and location: Two on the second floor front, Side 2
    Exposures and location: 2-story frame, rear, Side 3
    4. Develop attack plan: Inside attack, rescue occupants.
    5. Assign each incoming unit: Engine 1 - throw ladders, Engine 2 - pull 1 1/2” to first floor.
    6. Call for help (police, ambulance, apparatus, utilities, etc.)
    Size Up Format
    1. “Dispatch” _________ on scene at _____ (or across from )
    (3402, 3422 Eng 12, Trk 1) (address) (business name if possible)
    2. Establishing I.C. ____________ ( or transfer command to next in unit)
    (street name)
    3. Extent of fire on arrival ________________
    a. Nothing Showing
    b. Light Smoke Showing
    c. Heavy Smoke Showing
    d. Working Fire
    e. Fully Involved
    f. Conflagration
    g. Structures Down
    4. Story _______ (single, 1 1/2, 2, 2 1/2, 3, 3 1/2, 4, etc.)
    5. Construction ________
    a. Wood Frame
    b. Unreinforced Masonry
    c. Reinforced Masonry
    d. Poured Concrete Tilt Up
    e. Metal
    6. Occupancy ___________
    a. Residence
    b. Multi-Family Residence
    c. Apartment
    d. Commercial Occupancy
    e. Warehouse
    f. Mixed Occupancy
    7. The fire is located (1st floor, 2nd floor, Side 1,2,3,4, kitchen, roof, attic, garage, etc.)
    8. Life Hazard (no, possible, 1st floor, 2nd floor, Side 1, 2, 3 or 4.)
    9. Exposures (none, Side 1, 2, 3, 4, downwind, roofs, etc.)
    10. Instructions for 1st, 2nd, 3rd in companies
    11. Request help a. Type b. Amount


    1. Open command receiver
    2. See what units are on scene
    3. See who is on scene
    4. See who has there PASS on and call others on the radio to turn theirs on .
    5. Occasionally check to see if any firefighters are out of range.
    6. In the event of an alarm immediately call the victim by radio
    7. Send in RIC team with imager if no answer
    Make all assignments using name or number to maintain fire ground control

    Apartment Fires
    1. Position Command Unit in command location
    2. Size-up situation, determine where the fire is going
    3. Give condition report
    4. Order-up any additional resources (rehab, etc.)
    5. Lay supply lines or secure a water supply
    6. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    7. Don SCBA and protective clothing
    8. Walk around structure
    9. Examine the layout of a similar apartment below or beside the fire
    10. Protect residents with hose streams, 1 3/4” minimum, and/or throw
    ladders; protect stairways.
    11. Cover exposures, 1 3/4”, Bomb Line or Deck Gun. Get in front of the
    12. Assign ventilation crews.
    13. Assign forcible entry crews.
    14. Assign search crews with laser.
    15. Assign ladders crews.
    16. Assign attack crews, (3 personnel on 1 3/4 line for attack)
    17. Ventilate. (Generally via window) Then back-up with positive pressure
    18. Attack fire.
    19. Start primary search above and beside fire.
    20. Throw salvage covers as soon as possible.
    21. Throw ladders for additional escape routes and to speed hose
    22. Advance line, 1 3/4 minimum, above fire to cut off extension, check
    attic. Refer to Attic Fires on page 4.
    23. Set-up 1” piercing nozzle.
    24. Advance line, 1 3/4 minimum, beside fire to cut off extension.
    25. Pull back-up lines as needed.
    26. Set up for exterior attack.
    27. Secondary search.
    28. Overhaul.

    Attic Fires - 1 of 2
    1. Position Command Unit in command location
    2. Size-up situation, determine where the fire is going
    3. Give condition report
    4. Order-up any additional resources (rehab, etc.)
    5. Lay supply lines or secure a water supply
    6. Don SCBA and protective clothing
    7. Walk around structure
    8. Hand out appropriate ID vests.
    9. Cover exposures, 1 3/4”, Bomb Line or Deck Gun. Get in front of the
    10. Assign ventilation crews.
    11. Assign forcible entry crews.
    12. Assign search crews with laser.
    13. Assign attack crews.
    14. Ventilate positive pressure, then remove side walls. (Be sure the
    utilities are off.)
    15. If visible flame is showing from roof, pull attack line, 1 3/4” minimum
    or use Deck Gun. Give the rood a short blast of water in spray stream.
    If you get steam you probably have an attic fire. Steam will indicate the
    area of highest heat. If you don’t have an attic fire, your roof will be
    knocked down. See “Roof Fires” Page 18
    16. Advance attack line to uppermost floor, 1 3/4” minimum. If there is a
    great deal of fire, put a third person on the hose line for safety
    purposes. (Get the piercing nozzle inside as soon as possible.)
    17. Throw salvage covers (As soon as possible).
    18. Use an infrared detector to find fire area by aiming it at the ceiling and
    surrounding area.
    19. Stick piercing nozzle into the ceiling where the infrared detector
    indicates to steam the fire. (Make sure that all utilities are off).
    20. Continue operation until fire is knocked down.
    21. Place salvage covers.
    22. Pull back-up line, 1 3/4” minimum
    23. Pull ceiling
    24. Find attic scuttle hole or make one.
    25. Overhaul the fire.

    If infrared detector and piercing nozzle are not available, Items 18-23 change.
    18. Get pike poles, plaster hook and attic ladders to uppermost floor. Be
    sure that an 1 3/4” line is in place.
    19. a. Vent attic, eves or roof over fire. (Be sure that all utilities are
    b. Vent roof in front of fire, on both sides after roof has been
    vented over fire.
    Consider: With today’s new construction, standard ventilation practices may not be the method of choice. Sidewall ventilation is probably the preferred method.
    20. Pull ceiling in front of fire and knock down the fire.
    21. Place salvage covers
    22. Pull back-up line.
    23. Pull ceiling.
    24. Set up for exterior attack.
    Consider: Some departments have found great success dropping a cellar nozzle into the vent hole on buildings with large attics via aerial ladder.
    25. Overhaul the fire.

    Attic Fires
    Editor's note: This is the second part of the series Fire Attack Handbook. The handbook gives an A-Z listing (attics, basements, etc.) of fire attack steps. In the last issue, we covered auto fires. Remember to read part one again for general rules that pertain to all fires. This handbook is a guide to train by and play by. If you have any suggestions or constructive criticism, let us know so we can improve the handbook for everyone.
    A report of a house fire comes through the volunteers’ pagers. The members leave their homes in the dead of night and head for the station. The first-in sheriff’s unit reports a fire in the attic of a two-story home, and everyone is out and accounted for. As the crew from Truck One leaves the station, the company officer spots the ideal hydrant in the map book and then scans the fire attack handbook under the heading “attic fires.” Normally, a duty officer or chief would arrive first and run the call, but this is a holiday and anything is possible. As he looks over his shoulder, the company officer sees the super command cab is full, with eight guys donning air packs and hooking on their hand lights. Long ago his department got out of the habit of waiting to see what was burning and always arrives with everyone fully dressed with masks on. He slips into his air pack harness and dons his imaging helmet.
    He turns around and starts giving crew assignments, even though each member is sitting in a seat with preassigned duties determined long ago. He reminds two members that they are the attack team. One is supposed to carry the irons and act as a backup man, and one gets the nozzle. He assigns two rookies the job of throwing salvage covers. One firefighter is assigned positive pressure ventilation and told to meet the company officer inside when he is finished. Another member is told to bring the 6’ piercing nozzle and a 1” line in. One is told to catch the hydrant and then report to the engineer. Another is told to kill the power to the house and fill all top floor rooms with floodlights. The company officer will support the attack line and take up a 5’ hook. He reminds the engineer that he wants compressed air foam in the 1” line and to get ground ladders to windows on at least two sides, as other members arrive on scene.
    As they approach the fire area, smoke can be seen hanging in the neighborhood. When they pull up to a hydrant, a volunteer is already waiting. The officer turns around and tells the hydrant man, “Stay on board--you’re my extra man.” He then yells out the window to drop a 5” line. Just then he hears Engine Two responding with a crew of eight. Before the unit pulls away from the hydrant, the engineer has already engaged the pto pump, the aerial, the compressor and the generator. He has also flipped on 12,000 watts of floodlights. The company officer takes a look at the building through his helmet-mounted imager and can see heat buildup in the attic and a glowing wall on the next-door neighbor's house. He then gives his condition report, “Dispatch: Truck One on-scene, 111 Allen Court. I’m transferring the Allen IC to Engine Two. We have a two-story frame dwelling with fire showing from a second-story window on the left side and extension into the attic space. We have an exposure threatened on that same side. No other structures are threatened. We’re laying in, starting an interior attack and covering exposures. Have Engine Two come straight in for manpower and start a side wall vent.”
    He waits for dispatch to confirm his size up and then goes to work. The engineer positions the turntable, using the side-facing million-candle-power spotlight directly over the front door. At the same time, the officer directs his in-the-cab-controlled deck gun onto the wall of the exposure. He opens his foam water valve until just 100 gpm shows on the flow meter. He widens the pattern and the exposure disappears under a coating of foam. He leaves the nozzle flowing and dismounts.
    The officer then ensures that each member of his crew goes about his assigned task. He tells the extra man to get a hook and take out a window on either side of the window blowing flames. A 1” and 2” attack line and a blower are waiting at the front door. The officer joins his crew at the front door just as the power goes out inside. As the crew begins the attack, it notices the last occupant to leave had locked the front door. The irons man makes quick work of the door, and the attack line moves up the stairs, illuminated by the 500-watt cord light advancing with them. When they make the landing, the officer instructs the crew to take out the fire in the bedroom. The salvage crew throws a runner behind the attack crew and then is ordered to cover the rooms on each side of the fire room. The 1” line with the piercing nozzle tip is inserted into the hall ceiling right where the imager says it is the hottest and starts blowing foam. In seconds, the fire room darkens. The 1” line is repositioned to an adjoining room. The blower man reports to the officer for an assignment and is told to find the crawl space. The attack line is operating in a full fog out the window in an effort to clear the second floor of smoke. The rookies are already on their second pair of salvage covers. The 1” line is then moved to the next room. Because the line is shooting “shaving cream,” ceiling collapse does not occur. The company officer announces on the radio that he has knockdown.
    Meanwhile, outside the engineer has connected his supply line, called for water and is busy raising the aerial to the roof. When he sees the interior companies have achieved knockdown, he shuts down the deck gun. The floodlight man has a light in each upstairs room and is now helping the hydrant man place 1,500-watt tripods on each corner at the rear of the house.
    Engine three arrives with 16,000 watts of floodlights blazing. Two members are assigned to throw a ladder and one to get a saw. The three of them start removing the side wall. Three are assigned rapid intervention team duties and pull a 2” line, a saw, a hand-held thermal imager and assorted entry tools to the front door. The engineer lets the IC know that his company officer wants one ladder on at least two sides of the house, and the IC gives the engineer two guys to do the job. A ladder is then placed under each open window.
    The company officer sticks his head into the crawl space and takes a look around with the imager. All he sees is a cool mass. Two firefighters using a hand-held imager crawl into the attic with a 1” line and look for hot spots just as the side wall falls away. The company officer rotates half his crew outside to change bottles and take a blow. They will be going back into the attic later to haul out the fire debris. The company officer takes a walk around the dwelling looking for extension with the imager and then gives the IC a condition report. Although they are volunteers, this crew was able to staff their apparatus to capacity and have invested in technology wherever possible to get the most bang for the buck.
    The Three-Person Crew
    The company officer can remember just a few years ago when only three guys would respond on an engine, and only one or two would have air packs on arrival. Let’s take a look at the same fire with a crew of three and the second-in company of three four minutes away, using standard firefighting practice. The engine leaves the station, and the company officer tells the engineer to operate the pump and the hydrant man to drop a line. A condition report is given on arrival. The company officer works under the light of two 500-watt floodlights if the engineer had time to start the generator, turn the poles and throw the switch. He pulls a line to the front door and waits for the hydrant man to begin the attack. The hydrant man is already shot from running a block and a half in full gear from the hydrant. They find the front door locked, and one man leaves the line to get the irons. The crew then goes in to the house with the power still on, and they let the room on the second floor have it.
    About this time, the second-in unit arrives and sees fire through the roof; the neighboring home is also burning. A line is pulled to address the exposure as the engineer from the second-in unit hooks a supply line to the first-in unit. One member of the attack crew calls for a hook so they can start pulling ceiling. Eventually the hook arrives and the crews start pulling ceiling and spraying water. Every drop that goes up comes back down with the ceiling material, destroying everything on the second floor because the salvage covers are still on the unit. Eventually the debris finds its way to first floor belongings. Soon the air pack alarms sound, and the crew is forced from the building. By this time additional units are on scene to finish the job.
    Everything takes a little bit longer with a smaller crew because there are fewer hands to go around. With insufficient lighting, things are not as clear as they should be. Without supporting the attack with ventilation, the home sustains more damage, and the crews take a bit more of a beating. Everyone has to work harder. It is possible the first-in unit might not have laid a supply line, forcing the second-in company to do so. This simply would have delayed the line to the exposure and possibly resulted in the first-in company running out of water. It cannot be stated strongly enough that it takes a bunch of firefighters to perform on the fireground. Lathe and plaster ceilings simply make life harder. Ten and 12’ ceilings found in turn-of-the-century homes delay knockdown and push crews even harder. The mix of technology, tactics and people makes the difference between what is saved and what is lost.

    Auto Fires
    1. Size-up situation.
    2. Give condition report
    3. Park apparatus no closer than 100’ from vehicle.
    4. Lay supply lines or secure a water supply as needed.
    5. Don SCBA and protective clothing.
    6. Pull one 1 3/4” or larger attack line.
    7. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    8. Place wheel chock.
    9. Attack vehicle at angles.
    10. Cool fuel tank, bumpers, headlights, etc.
    11. Punch out tail light or use piercing nozzle to cool top of gas tank if
    12. Search for victims using ladder.
    13. Pull additional lines as needed. (May be smaller than 1 3/4”)
    14. Overhaul.

    Sample Scenario
    Engine 1 responds to a report of a car fire in a residential neighborhood. The crews, including the company officer, don full SCBA and protective clothing en route. He flips to the Auto Fire page of the attack guide and scans it. The company officer tells two guys in the cab to “pull the front bumper 150' trash line” and another member to “chock the wheels, grab the hook and the irons, and perform the search.” He tells the engineer, “I want all lines with foam and if this thing is rocking when we get there or if it is near any exposures, I want you to blast it with the monitor while we get the attack line extended.”
    Captain Tyler’s size-up goes something like this: “Engine 1 on-scene at 611 Cherry Lane. Captain Tyler assuming Cherry IC. We have a car burning in the middle of the street, everyone is clear of the car and we have no exposures. This unit can handle it. We’re pulling a 1 3/4" line.”
    The line is pulled and the crew approaches the vehicle from the driver’s side, knocking down the fire and cooling hazard areas. Under protection of the line, a wheel chock is placed. After search and knockdown, a 50' roll of 1" hose is attached to the end of the attack line for overhaul. Cherry IC reports that the fire is knocked down and his crew should be free in 15 minutes.

    Basement Fires
    1. Position Command Unit in command location
    2. Size-up situation, determine where the fire is going (use imager)
    3. Give condition report
    4. Lay supply lines or secure a water supply
    5. Don SCBA and protective clothing
    6. Walk around structure
    7. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    8. Assign search crews with imager.
    9. Assign ventilation crews.
    10. Assign forcible entry crews.
    11. Assign attack crews.
    12. Order-up any additional resources (RIC, rehab, etc.)
    13. Ventilate when attack crew is ready via windows and charge home
    with blowers.
    14. Take attack line, 1 3/4” minimum(foam on), to the stairway and hold
    the fire. Close basement door, if one is available.
    15. If small fire, go downstairs and knock it down; if not, keep pushing the
    fire down.
    16. Start primary search upstairs.
    17. Pull back-up line, 1 3/4” minimum, to stairway door (crew should be
    imager equipped).
    18. If you can hold your bare hand over your head, attack the fire via stairs
    and push fire out basement windows. Always leave a firefighter with a
    radio at the top of the stairs to monitor stairway survivabilty. If
    stairway conditions do not allow interior attack, go to an exterior attack
    or piercing or cellar nozzle attack through the floor. Vent roof here
    19. Set up for exterior attack with for cellar/piercing nozzle attack should
    interior attack fail.
    20. Pull back-up line for fire extension to upper floors.
    21. Conduct primary basement search.
    22. Search attic for fire extension use imager.
    23. Secondary search all floors.
    24. Overhaul.

    Basement Fires
    Let an Imager Lead the Way
    Editor’s note: This is another in a series of chapters in the Fire Attack Handbook. This guide is designed to give a step-by-step process to attack common types of fires.
    Nobody likes a basement fire. I never heard any firefighter yearn for a hot smoky fire with three or four floors exposed and no way to locate the seat of the fire. We like to see the flames and go get them. Climbing down stairs to a fire is like Santa going down the chimney with the fireplace cooking. Worse yet, you might get downstairs and not be able to get back up due to the heat wave. Basement fires require command to set up for interior and exterior operations simultaneously. Either you make a quick interior stop or the entire building is going to be history and will it will be addressed with master streams.
    About the time you know the interior attack failed, all the air packs on scene are out of air. Balloon frame construction ensures the fire will find the attic (see "Attic Fires" Firefighter’s News, October/November ‘96), and extensive spread through the stud channels on all floors is a sure thing. It is not uncommon to see a fully involved dwelling 20 to 40 minutes into interior operations. These are the fires where staffing of two and three per company doesn’t work. You need lots of help rolling real soon. Not many departments do well on these types of fires.
    One Sunday, just after noon, companies were dispatched to a report of a house fire. The first-in company, Engine 1 with a crew of three, reported on-scene at 921 Heron, establishing Heron IC. "We have a three-story frame dwelling, with smoke showing on all floors, and no exposures. We’re stretching a supply line and pulling an attack line to try and determine the location of the fire. Engine 2 and Truck 1, I want you to commit to search and vent operations. Dispatch, sound a second alarm and recall off-duty firefighters." The second alarm and recall would bring a total response of five engines, two trucks and 21 to 35 firefighters, depending on the number of off-duty members in town.
    Engine 1 dropped an unmanned 4" supply line from the hydrant, per SOPs, and positioned to the left of the fire building, leaving the front of the building open for arriving truck companies. As the company officer stepped off the rig, the situation appeared to be a smoky ground-floor fire. As he approached the kitchen door, the sound was obvious: The basement was rocking. Having seen this movie a few times before, he knew the first attack line had to be taken through the kitchen door.
    Battalion Chief 2 two arrived on Engine 1’s tail and scanned the house with his $8,500 vehicle-mounted thermal imager. Through the smoke and walls, he could see that the fire owned a large portion of the basement and was traveling up the studs to the first and second floors. The engine compartment of the station wagon in the driveway was still hot.
    BC-2 met with E-1’s captain and took command, making E-1 the interior sector officer. Their game plan was to see if they could cut off the fire spread up the stairs so a quick search could be made through the rest of the home.
    Engine 1’s crew advanced a 1 3/4" line with a pump pressure of 200 psi. The engineer became a member of the three-man hose crew. A quick strike on the door with the halligan didn’t accomplish a thing. Several more blows, and it still didn’t budge. One crew member said, "swing at the upper hinges. We might have someone behind the door." The door laid down over the victims behind it. The fire was already roaring over the crew’s heads in the kitchen as it left the stairway opening. The crew opened up on the fire with the attack line and then slammed the stairway door to keep the fire in the basement. The nozzleman knocked out the lowest of the panels on the six panel door and opened the nozzle all the way. The two victims were dragged from the room. The attack was stalled with all but one of the firefighters working on the victims. BC-2 requested two ambulances and gave an update to responding companies.
    Engine 3 arrived with two of its crew in breathing apparatus. BC-2 ordered the pair to make a quick search of the house with an imager under the cover of the 1 3/4" line covering the stairs. Then they were to get out.
    For several minutes, the fire grew and the rescue crew flew through the structure. Fire blew out all three basement windows on the left and rear of the building. BC-2 kept in constant radio communications with the attack line and the search crew checking for heat levels and progress, advising them of the fire’s spread.
    E-3 arrived, laying a line. The crew was ordered to take a line to cover the flames blowing out the window(the autoexposure) on the outside and advance a 2 1/2" line to the interior.
    One member of Truck 1 would open the remaining basement windows and the outside door. The other two members would help with the attack line. Engine 4 stopped at the hydrant to turn it on for E-1 and then laid its own line from the same plug. They were then assigned to set up for exterior attack if the interior attack failed. With low air bottle alarms wailing, Engine 3’s crew left the building carrying a lifeless infant.
    E-3’s crew, under the protection of E-1’s line, started down the stairs, pushing fire in front of them. Their nozzle was blowing 300 gpm in a narrow-to-wide fog pattern. The flames pushed out the basement windows under incredible pressure, keeping the exterior line busy and the flame from extending up the exterior wall.
    Truck 4 and Engine 5 arrived and were given the task of opening the roof and checking for extension throughout the building. A piercing nozzle was used where ever the fire was found with the imager to eliminate the step of opening up. Eventually the walls would be opened, but not under such urgent heavy smoke conditions. It would take several hours and almost 100 air bottles to chase down all of the hidden fire.
    The same fire without the imagers occurs each day. In some cases, not knowing the fire was below them has caused firefighter fatalities. Would you dare send a crew above a fire crawling on their hands and knees without truck company or attack line support? Would the search simply be a race to see who runs out of air first? Do you really think you can search a three-floor, 3,600-square-foot home and find anything with a 30-minute bottle? Imagers offer many of the answers to this type of firefighting.

    Boat Fires
    1. Position Command Unit in command location
    2. Size-up situation, determine where the fire is going
    3. Give condition report.
    4. Lay supply line, secure a water supply.
    5. Don SCBA and protective clothing.
    6. Walk around the fire area, get a feel for the fire.
    7. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    8. Use laser to determine extent of fire area if needed.
    9. Order-up any additional resources (rehab, etc.)
    10. Water between life and fire.
    11. Pull exposure lines. 1 3/4”, Bomb Line or Deck Gun. Get in front of
    the fires.
    Note: If fuel is floating on the water and/to burning, cover it with MEX foam blanket and/or control fuel flow and exposures with hose streams. If a floating dock is burning, trench cut to cut off fire.
    12. Cut loose (seat belt cutter) exposed boats and push them out into the
    13. Assign ventilation crews.
    14. Assign forcible entry crews.
    15. Assign attack crews.
    16. Ventilate when attack crew is ready by breaking glass on the high
    smoke/high heat side of the fire area..
    17. Attack fire, 1 3/4” minimum, push fire from boat. (Note: 3 firefighters
    on the first line.)
    18. Start primary search.
    19. Pull back-up line, 1 3/4” minimum. Check for extension.
    20. Set up for exterior attack. Start secondary search.
    21. Overhaul.

    Chimney Fires
    1. Position Command Unit in command location
    2. Size-up situation, determine where the fire is going
    3. Give condition report.
    4. Lay supply lines or secure a water supply.
    5. Don SCBA and protective clothing.
    6. Walk around structure.
    7. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    8. Use laser on inside and outside of building.
    9. Check roof.
    10. Check for extension.
    11. If extension, put out fire in fire box and chimney after covering
    fireplace opening.
    12. Use piercing nozzle to knock down any additional fire behind walls or
    13. Advise owner not to use again until cleaned and inspected.

    Flammable Liquid Fires
    1. Position Command Unit in command location
    2. Size-up situation, determine where the fire is going
    3. Give condition report.
    4. Lay supply lines or secure a water supply.
    5. Don SCBA and protective clothing.
    6. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    7. Place protective streams between fire and exposures, use 1 3/4”, Bomb
    Lines or Deck Guns. (Ideally use unmanned streams.) Get in front of
    the fire. Evacuate occupants of threatened areas.
    8. Immediately start diking areas of actual or potential run off.
    9. Order-up foam supplies, dump trucks, containment booms, etc., if you
    intend to attack fire. (Letting the fire burn may be just as good an
    10. Order up any additional resources. (Rehab, Coast Guard, Fish and
    Game, Vacuum trucks, Haz-Mat teams, etc.)
    11. Set up foam cannon and all foam supplies.
    Note: Diesel fuel burns at 1/3” per minute.
    12. Place cooling streams on any pressure vessels or plumbing to reduce
    BLEVE potential.
    13. Keep everyone out of spill area unless a rescue is ordered.
    14. Contact carrier and determine if their willing to pay for suppression
    15. Use laser to watch heat wave in above ground tanks.
    16. Use MEX nozzles for vapor suppression.

    Fuel (Gasoline/Diesel) Smell or Leak
    1. En route insure all units including command stage one block away at
    water supply.
    2. Don SCBA and protective clothing.
    3. Position command unit in a command location.
    4. Note wind direction.
    5. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    6. Walk in with Explosion meter(s)
    7. Don’t allow anyone access to area, stay alert, watch downwind area.
    8. If smell of fuel with little or no visible pool, flush spill area with deck
    gun and flow hydrants to flush sewer system and reduce vapor release.
    9. If fuel is leaking from a vehicle fuel tank, cool the tank and carefully
    remove the cap. To allow increased release, repositioning the vehicle
    will often stop fuel release.
    10. Pull foam line with Mex nozzle and bury the spill.
    11. Have firefighters stand by with deck gun.
    12. Initiate diking with earth.
    13. Eliminate ignition sources.
    14. Attempt to seal leak with compound, wedges or dowels.
    15. Notify carrier.
    16. Consider moving vehicle to safe location.
    Note: If large spill or ignition occurs, turn to page 10.
    17. Send vehicle to pick-up barricades at public works for long duration
    Garage Fires
    1. Position Command Unit in command location where you can see three
    sides of the structure or the side in the greatest danger.
    2. Size-up the situation, determine where the fire is going, use thermal
    3. Give condition report.
    4. Lay supply line or secure a water supply.
    5. Don SCBA and protective clothing.
    6. Take a walk to get a look at the fire situation.
    7. Hand out appropriate ID sector vests
    8. Protect exposures, with a 1 3/4” line or unmanned Bomb Line or Deck
    Gun. Get in front of the fire.
    9. Assign forcible entry crews.
    10. Assign Search crews with thermal imaging camera.
    11. Assign ventilation crews.
    12. Assign attack crews.
    13. Start positive pressure ventilation to pressurize the home. (Remember
    to close house windows.)
    14. Ventilate garage by opening overhead door (securely block open) or
    cut one with a saw and remove windows when attack crew is ready.
    15. Pull 1 3/4” line inside the home to protect interior garage entry door
    and adjoining wall. Use the thermal imager to check for fire extension.
    16. Pull 1 3/4” or larger line to the garage side door, or make one.
    (Remember to shut off utilities prior to cutting on structures.) Attack
    the fire as needed using straight stream pattern. If the garage door is
    open or down attack fire from that vantage point using a straight
    stream. Do not enter the garage due to truss construction.
    17. Pull piercing nozzle into structure to cut off attic extension and get
    imager crew to attic. (See Attic Fires Oct/Nov 1996 FFN’s)
    18. Start primary search of residence.
    19. Pull back-up line, 1 3/4” minimum. Continue check for extension.
    Note: When minimum staffing requires a quick, high-volume attack, a Deck Gun will generally bring a garage fire to its knees if straight stream is used. A 1” line with a nozzle 60 to 125 gpm nozzle can then be used for overhaul.
    20. Set up for exterior attack.
    21. Perform secondary search.
    22. Overhaul.

    Grass Fires
    1. Position Command Unit in command location
    2. Size-up the situation (Determine where the fire is going)
    3. Don protective clothing
    4. Give condition report.
    5. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    6. Assign incoming resources
    7. Protect exposures.
    8. Determine the need for additional resources. (Rehab, etc.)
    Note: Attack fire from the burn, stay out of unburned fuel. Narrow the front fire.
    9. Secure a water supply (Full Site)
    10. Set-up a ready reserve for breakouts.
    11. Stage company for additional calls.
    Note: It is generally better when sufficient staffing is available to let a lot burn off. This will reduce the number of nuisance calls to that lot.

    Haz-Mat Incidents - 1 of 2
    1. Position Command Unit in command location; approach and maintain
    2. Broadcast “All units stage 3 blocks from the scene.”
    3. Size-up the situation, determine where the fire is going
    4. Give condition report.
    5. Order up any additional resources as needed, rehab, etc.
    6. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    7. Secure the scene.
    a. Block all roads
    b. Evacuate persons from the immediate area.
    c. Restrict all onlookers. (Deny entry)
    8. Check for ignition sources.
    9. Identify the problem from a distance using binoculars if possible (Just
    because PD or other people are too close is not a reason for us to be
    too close.) Notify dispatch of what you see. Use the attached check off
    10. If you cannot ID from a distance:
    a. Approach container with full protective clothing and gas detector.
    b. Obtain needed information.
    c. Withdraw all people.
    Note: With leak or spill, but no fire, approach only with specially trained and equipped personnel to gain identification.
    Note: When there is a container with fire impinging on it:
    a. Withdraw from area
    b. Notify dispatch
    c. Consider evacuation
    d. Consider a BLEVE
    Note: If you have identified the product as flammable, cooling may be attempted with unmanned monitors only.
    11. What is the eminent danger?
    a. Contain materials - do not flush away
    b. Block sewers or accesses to streams or bodies of water
    12. Contacts:. CHEMTREC 800/424-9300 communicate with fax
    c. County Environmental Health
    d. Fish and Game
    e. The Carrier
    13. Attempt a rescue only if possible without endangering additional personnel.
    Hazardous Materials Check Off Sheet(circle)
    No Leak No Runoff No Damaged Container
    Leak Runoff Damaged Container
    No Spill No Fire No Visible Cloud
    Spill Fire Visible Cloud
    Non Pressure Vessel Non Flammable No Radiation
    Pressure Vessel Flammable Visible Cloud
    Non Explosive Solid Liquid Gas
    Container Type:
    Box Drum Can Bottle Pipeline Rail Tank Car Rail Box Car Storage Tank Unknown in Warehouse Unknown in other vehicle
    Other Important Information:
    Shipper/Carrier Names:
    Product Name:
    Placard Hazard Class(es):
    4 Digit ID #s:
    Shipping papers Bill of Lading Manifest Weigh Bill
    Rail Boat Cab Boat Air
    Vehicle Name: Manufacturer:
    License #: Container Shape: Other #s:

    Hazardous Materials Data Sheet
    Generic Name:
    STCC Number:
    Classifications: DOT: UN:
    Hazards: Health: Irritant Eye Skin Respiratory Tract Other
    Properties: Boiling Point F Flash Point F
    Ignition Temp. F Flammable Limits: %
    Specific Gravity Vapor Density
    Water Solubility: Complete Partial Not Soluble
    Extinguishing Agents: Water Dry Chem Carbon Dioxide Foam
    First Aid: Wash skin with soap
    Flush Eyes and/or skin with water for 15 minutes
    Remove to fresh air
    Seek immediate medical assistance
    Protective Equipment: Full protective clothing with SCBA Gloves Rubber Neoprene Leather Chemical Suit: Saranted Tyvek Other
    Reacts with:
    Evacuation: Not Required Required
    Distance: Immediate Area 0-1/2 Mile 1/2-1 Mile 1-2 Mile
    Diving: Required Not Required

    Single-Story House Fires
    1. Position Command Unit in command location
    2. Size-up the situation, determine where the fire is going
    3. Give condition report.
    4. Lay supply lines or secure a water supply.
    5. Don SCBA and protective clothing.
    6. Walk around structure to get a good feel for the fire.
    7. Order-up any additional resources, rehab unit.
    8. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    9. Water between life and fire.
    10. Pull exposure lines. 1 3/4”, Bomb Line or Deck Gun. Get in front of
    the fire.
    11. Assign ventilation crews.
    12. Assign search crew with laser.
    13. Assign forcible entry crews.
    14. Assign attack crews.
    15. Ventilate when attack crew is ready by breaking glass on the high-
    smoke/high-heat side of structure. Then start positive pressure.
    16. Attack fire, 1 3/4” minimum, push fire from building. (Note: 3
    firefighters on first attack line.)
    17. Start primary search.
    18. Pull line, 1 3/4” minimum, to act as back-up and search attic for
    extension via laser. Use 1” with piercing nozzle to cut off extension.
    19. Set up for exterior attack.
    20. Secondary search.
    21. Overhaul.

    Multi-Story House Fires
    1. Size-up the situation, determine where the fire is going
    2. Give condition report.
    3. Position Command Unit in command location
    4. Lay supply lines or secure a water supply.
    5. Don SCBA and protective clothing.
    6. Walk around structure to get a good feel for the fire.
    7. Order-up any additional resources, rehab unit.
    8. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    9. Water between life and fire, and/or throw ladders; protect stairwells.
    10. Pull exposure lines. 1 3/4”, Bomb Line or Deck Gun. Get in front of
    the fire. If flame is blowing out a window on arrival threatening the
    window above, place a stream to cover the endangered window, but do
    not spray water into the window the flame is leaving.
    11. Assign ventilation crews.
    12. Assign ladder crews
    13. Assign forcible entry crews.
    14. Assign search crew with laser.
    15. Assign attack crews. If fire is on upper floor, advance line dry, charge
    line when in position, with slack laid out.
    16. Ventilate when attack crew is ready by breaking glass on the high-
    smoke/high-heat side of structure. Then start positive pressure.
    17. Attack the fire by pushing the fire out of the building, 1 3/4” minimum.
    On heavy fire situations use three personnel on each line. Three to four
    people per line mandatory when going above the fire floor.
    18. Send in primary search team.
    19. Throw ladders to upper floors to provide extra escape routes and to
    speed secondary line advancement.
    20. Pull line, 1 3/4” minimum, above the fire to check for extension. (Check & Double Check the Attic.)
    21. Pull a back-up line, 1 3/4” minimum.
    22.. Set up for exterior attack.
    23. Secondary search.
    24. Overhaul fire.
    Mobile Home Fires

    Seizure World as it is known by the local firefighters and medics has 7,000 mobile homes set in a park like environment. The medic unit almost lives in the retirement village. They don’t have many fires but when they do they are almost always fatal. According to Operation Life Safety, smoke detectors only increase the chances of fire survival by 47 percent. Other statistics indicate the elderly have two to three times the fatality rate of the rest of the younger population. Bed time in this community is 24 hours a day and varies from trailer to trailer. Many residents do not have cars so the visual cue of looking for a car in the driveway is lost. Like many departments Seizure World FD runs with a crew of three. On paper each station has five members. The medic unit is rarely ever in quarters and consequently cannot be relied upon. The next in unit is 5 minutes out if they are not out. So the engine is on their own when it matters most during the opening minutes of fire and rescue efforts. With 2 in 2 out unless a rescue is obvious the fire would have to be addressed from the exterior until additional crews can arrive.

    A report for smoke in the area rocks the station. The first out engine rolls backup with another engine with a crew of three 5 minutes behind them. The burning trailer is just three blocks from the station. The engine arrives at the hydrant, 600 feet from the fire. One member jumps out of the cab. He pulls the supply line out of the bed. Removes the steamer cap from the hydrant and attaches the automatic hydrant valve. Thirteen turns later the hydrant is turned on and the firefighter gets back in the cab. They sacrificed 51 seconds at the hydrant but with their apparatus spacing and small crew size they cannot afford to go to war with one firefighter stranded at the hydrant. Running out of water would doom the operation and require a time consuming hand jack back to the hydrant. This captain has told his crew repeatedly to never drive by a perfectly good hydrant on any structure fire. With everyone back on board the engine lays in.

    The engine crew on the way in sees three sides of the structure giving the everyone a good feel for the situation they are about to address. The company officer gives the condition report. “Engine 10 onscene at 1400 Marsh Lane. Establishing Marsh IC. We have a single wide 12 by 50 mobile home with flames showing in the center. Life hazard is unknown. We have an exposure on side right. We are starting initial attack and search with a 1 ½” line. Engine 7 on arrival perform a whole house search.”

    The engineer gets out of the cab throttles the pump up to 175 psi to insure a flow of 125 gpm. He pulls the Class A foam lever. With the pump pumping through the relief valve he abandons the pump to operate itself on autopilot. He proceeds to the rear of the unit and breaks the supply line and connects it to the side of the rig. He grabs an air pack and awaits the attack line teams signal to charge the line.

    The firefighter dons an air pack and stretches an attack line to the rear door. The company officer brings a halligan. They call for water and mask up. The company officer tells the firefighter to keep the nozzle in the straight stream position for knock down. It is obvious to the veteran of dozens of mobile home fires that the rear bedroom door is closed. The fact the smoke is still light in the bedroom window and flame has penetrated the aluminum sides confirms his assumptions from the cab. The fire has procession of the hall and laundry room. The only chance for anyone is this trailer is if they are in the rear bedroom behind the closed door. A straight stream attack will achieve knock down, not produce scalding steam possibly injuring the attack crew or dooming any victims. It will also allow him under the cover of the attack line to go through the side door into the bedroom and make a grab for any occupants in that room.

    The engineer charges the attack line grabs a pike pole, a 10 foot folding ladder and heads to the rear of the trailer. The company officer says, “take out the bedroom glass the second we knock down the fire then work your way around and get all the rest of the glass. Then to get back to the rear door.” The engineer opens the ladder and places it next to the large rear bedroom window to provide a secondary means of egress if needed.

    The officer forces the side door. The nozzle man moves in with a straight stream gobbling up fire. The laundry room directly in front of him doesn’t stand a chance. The engineer takes out the screens, windows and blinds as fast as possible. The company officer directs the nozzle man to push his way to the right and work his down the hall in a wide fog and not to stop. “If you find someone put the nozzle down and get them out.” The second the nozzle is directed towards the hall the smoke begins to billow under pressure in excess of 10,000 cubic feet per minute out of the rest of the windows. Behind the nozzle is just fresh air.

    The officer opens the rear bedroom door and closes it behind him isolating it from the smoke and fire on the other side. Laying on the bed unconscious are an elderly couple. Th officer yells out the window we’ve got two down. He drags one at a time outside. The engineer gives a radio update, “Communications Marsh IC we have two fire victims and we are beginning resuscitation efforts. The fire has been knocked down.” He then high tails it to the engine to grab the trauma kit and oxygen unit. In the distance they can hear Engine 7’s siren wailing. The fire has been knocked down but the hard part is just beginning.

    Small crews need to work as a team and walk through exact steps long before the fire if they are expected to have any success. The Fire Attack Handbook lays out the steps

    Mobile Home Fires
    1. Size-up the situation, determine where the fire is going
    2. Position Command Unit in command location
    3. Scan fire building and exposures with thermal imager and give a
    condition report.
    4. Lay supply lines or secure a water supply.
    5. Don SCBA and protective clothing.
    6. Position dry attack line, 1 3/4” minimum, between doors.
    7. Walk around structure and get a feel for the situation.
    8. Protect exposures with a 1 3/4” line , or preferably a unmanned bomb
    line or deck gun. Get in front of the fire.
    10. Assign ventilation crews.
    11. Assign search crew with thermal imager.
    12. Assign attack crews.
    13. Assign forcible entry crews.
    14. Ventilate on the high-heat/high-smoke side of structure when attack
    crew is ready by removing windows.
    15. Advance attack line in low-heat/low-smoke side of structure. Push fire
    out of the trailer unless fully involved then exterior attack is called for.
    16. Primary search.
    17. Pull back-up line, 1 3/4” minimum.
    18. Set up for exterior attack should interior attack fail.
    19. Secondary search.
    20. Overhaul fire.
    Consider: * Double-wide trailers may require a back-up line on the initial
    attack to follow the attack line.
    * Straight streams off the ceiling may save lines.
    * A piercing nozzle or applicator should be used to steam fully
    involved trailers.

    Natural Gas Leak or Spill
    1. En route insure gas company notification
    2. Insure en route, all units stage one block away at water supply.
    3. Don protective clothing.
    4. Note wind direction. Hand out appropriate ID vests.
    5. Approach upwind with explosion meter.
    6. Evacuate area and effected structures; keep everyone away, stay alert,
    watch downwind area closely.
    7. Eliminate ignition sources.
    8. Shut off gas meter.
    9. Keep all firefighter out of structure.
    10. Our goal is to allow gas company to secure, test and certify the
    effected system without increasing the change of ignition or
    unnecessary victims or damage.
    11. Send unit to public works for barricades for long duration incidents.

    Roof Fires
    1. Size-up the situation, determine where the fire is going
    2. Position Command Unit in command position.
    3. Give condition report.
    4. Lay supply lines or secure a water supply.
    5. Don SCBA and protective clothing.
    6. Talk a walk and get a look at the fire.
    7. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    8. Protect exposures, 1 3/4”, Bomb Line or Deck Gun. Get in front of the
    9. Hit the fire with attack line. 1 3/4” minimum, or Deck Gun in spray
    position (couple second blast), then shut down.
    10. If the above attack generates a large volume of steam, you may have an
    attic fire. See “Attic Fires” Page 4
    11. Pull attack line, 1 3/4” minimum.
    12. Throw ladder to roof.
    13. Throw salvage covers as appropriate.
    14. Shut off utilities.
    15. Check extension to attic with laser.
    16. Set up for exterior attack.
    17. Overhaul fire.
    Consider: Running fires require a deck gun assault.

    Shopping Center Fires
    1. Size-up the situation, determine where the fire is going
    2. Position Command Unit in command location
    3. Give condition report.
    4. Lay supply lines or secure a water supply.
    5. Don SCBA and protective clothing.
    6. Walk around structure.
    7. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    8. Order up any additional resources, rehab unit.
    9. Support sprinkler system. (See page 21)
    10. Determine fire location.
    11. Water between life and fire and/or throw ladders; protect stairways.
    12. Water between exposures and fire, cut off fire spread.
    13. Assign forcible entry crews.
    14. Assign ventilation crews.
    15. Assign search crew with laser.
    16. Assign attack crews.
    17. Ventilate via windows, doors, etc.
    18. Attack seat of fire, 1 3/4” minimum. (For large volume fires use the
    Bomb Line.)
    19. Start primary search.
    20. Open attic area. (If it’s worth the risk, shut off the utilities first.) Note:
    Watch out for common attics.
    21. Extend line, 1 3/4” minimum, to each adjoining store and search for
    extension, including attic. If fire is in attic, See “Attic Fires.” (Pre-
    position piercing nozzles for the inevitable.)
    22. Pull back-up lines, 1 3/4” minimum.
    18. Set up for exterior attack.
    19. Secondary search.
    20. Overhaul fire.

    Sprinkled Building Fires
    1. Lay supply lines, 5” from the fire hydrant to the sprinkler connection.
    Attach to pump.
    2. Lay a 5” line from the pump discharge to the fire department
    3. Maintain 150 psi to the sprinkler system. If 150 psi cannot be
    maintained, re-evaluate the building and/or the water supply.
    4. Send a firefighter to the post indicator valve to insure that it is in the
    open position.
    5. Report to command if or when:
    a. PIV is open or closed
    b. Water Gong is or isn’t flowing
    c. Water is flowing from wall drain
    d. Fire department sprinkler connection is supplied by the 5” line at 150
    e. If 150 psi cannot be maintained to the sprinkler system
    6. Ventilate as needed, generally by breaking windows, when attack crew
    is ready.
    7. Advance attack line, 1 3/4” minimum, into structure to finish off the
    8. Send in search for primary search.
    9. Advance back-up lines.
    10. Set up for exterior attack.
    11. Secondary search.
    12. Secure open sprinkler with dowels
    13. Shut off PIV to replace sprinkler head.
    Caution: Be sure there is no fire danger prior to shutting off any sprinkler system!
    14. Open the PIV and return system to normal.
    15. Advise building owner to notify sprinkler company.
    16. Overhaul fire.

    Structure Fires - General - 1 of 5
    1. Position Command Unit in a command location.
    2. Give unit # of person in command: 3401 on scene, assuming Honker
    3. Give command post location: Main & Common.
    4. Give general fire conditions to incoming units as needed.
    Type of structure 2 story house
    Initial Condition Report Nothing showing, Smoke showing, Working fire.
    Victims and location Two on the second floor right of bldg.
    Exposures and location House to the right.
    5. Develop attack plan Inside attack, rescue occupants, etc.
    6. Assign each incoming unit: Engine 20-catch hydrant
    7. Call for additional resources as needed help, (police, ambulance, rehab, apparatus, utilities, etc.)
    8. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    9. Lay supply lines or secure water.
    10. Don SCBA and protective clothing.
    11. Walk around the structure or assign others to get the feel of the fire.
    12. Order up any additional resources, Rehab, Air, etc.
    13. Water between life and fire, 1 3/4” minimum, and/or throw ladders, protect stairways.
    14. Supply sprinkler systems.
    15. Water between exposures and fire, cut off fire spread.
    16. Assign ventilation crews.
    17. Assign search crews with laser.
    18. Start primary search.
    19. Throw additional ladders for escape routes and to speed hose line advance if needed.
    20. Assign attack crews, pull line 1 3/4” minimum.

    21. Ventilate when attack crew is ready.
    22. Attack seat of fire.
    23. Advance a line, 1 3/4” minimum, above fire.
    24. Position back-up lines.
    25. Prepare for worst case, outside attack, by first setting up for a two-position attack, then surround the building.
    Consider: Large area fires should be attacked with Deck Guns or Bomb Lines from the exterior at safe distance. (Be sure all personnel are out of the building.)
    Consider: Once fire is knocked down by exterior attack evaluate structural stability and risk of interior overhaul. If too dangerous, surround and drown. A thorough search through the rubble for victims should take place when safe.
    Consider: Is the structure worth the risk!

    General Considerations:
    1. When fire poses an actual or probable threat to the safety of people, remove them if possible.
    2. If fire threatens to cut off the escape route of occupants, direct a hose stream between the threatened egress and the fire or redirect the occupants escape route.
    3. Countermand any pervious order that is contrary to good fire tactics.
    4. Cover exposures first, fight fire later. Exposure lines should be capable of attacking fire as well as protecting exposures.
    5. Fire fighter safety should not depend on a single attack line.
    6. A building seriously involved by fire should be ventilated promptly and thoroughly. Minimum staffing generally requires window ventilation.
    7. Where a fire extends to a stairway, shaft, or other vertical opening which extends to the roof, ventilate above such openings.
    8. Attack the fire from the unburned side so as to push the fire to the burned side.
    9. Keep a list of firefighters and equipment on the fire ground.
    10. On any report of people trapped, call for ambulance and additional apparatus or resources as needed.
    11. First-in unit should see three sides of the fire building, then assign someone to the fourth side.
    12. Generally, smoke on all floors is an indication of a fire on the lowest floor with smoke showing.
    13. First line on multiple story structures goes to protect the stairway.
    14. Utilities should be shut off first before attack on all wall, partition, ceiling, rook, attic and floor fires. This includes the use of piercing nozzles.
    15. 1 3/4” hose if the minimum size attack line for crew protection and fire attack…
    16. If crew is unable to make inside progress, additional ventilation and a higher flow rate is needed, or a change in attack direction.
    17. If after 20 minutes, or the sounding of the first air-pack alarm, fire intensity has not been reduced dramatically withdraw interior companies and start exterior attack. Note: On new construction, any heavy attic involvement requires withdrawal of attack crew immediately. Attack from exterior with piercing nozzles and saws.
    18. Remember, if hose lines are not moving, re-evaluate the situation…
    19. Fully-involved buildings should be attacked from the exterior at safe distances.
    20. Don’t change direction in which flames are blowing.
    21. When heat intensity is so severe that interior positions cannot be maintained, exterior streams are warranted after withdrawal of interior companies. (Keep in mind that additional lines may be needed before withdrawal.)
    22. It is usually best, in interior operations, to hit the source of the fire, rather then head it off.
    23. In protecting, set up defenses in anticipation of conditions, rather than wait for the emergency to reach more serious proportions. Think of the worst, and watch out for the placement of equipment.
    Hose Placement
    1st Between life and fire exits.
    2nd Between fire and exposures.
    3rd Sprinkler systems.
    4th Attack fire.
    5th Surround area.
    6th Back-up lines.
    7th Fill in heavy streams and sprinklers.
    8th Brand protection.
    9th Set up for worst case exterior attack.
    24. 1 3/4” attack lines, Bomb lines, or Deck Guns should be used for exposure protection.
    25. Generally, unmanned monitors should be used for exposure protection.
    26. Ventilation may need to be performed at any time.
    27. Anticipate the potential of the problem and call for additional resources early. An Air and Rehab Unit will be needed on all working fires…
    28. Be attentive to the physical needs of personnel, provide relief crews. (Provide rehab and rotation of personnel using SCBA.)
    29. Remember, size-up is a continuous process.
    30. No more than one attack line through a doorway. Use ladders, windows, etc.
    31. Use the laser for fire extension and initial search of victims. The 1” line with a piercing nozzle should be utilized when the laser is being used for extension of fire. Don’t wait for the fire to get worse to put it out.
    32. Remember that ventilation and salvage need to be thought of early in the fire. They may facilitate other functions or decrease property loss. Remember, property damage continues until all smoke has been evacuated from the structure. Also, all standing water should be removed.
    33. When it is necessary to pull ceilings or walls, knock fire down with piercing nozzle to head the fire off, then open up.
    34. When ventilating a single family dwelling, vent via side wall not roof. If there is fire in the attic of today’s structures the last place you want to be is on the roof…
    35. Any heavy involvement in the attic requires an exterior attack in truss buildings or houses.
    36. Establish a ready reserve for second call, breakout, etc.
    37. Order rehab early on any call where SCBA is being used, high or low temperatures are encountered, or long duration incidents.
    38. Straight streams should be used in instances where pushing the fire is not desirable.
    39. A 1” line at 250 psi will allow minimum staffing to effectively attack a fire.
    40. All personnel entering the structure should carry tools, lights, runners, covers, floodlights, bowers, etc. with them to the structure to insure their availability.
    41. On all fires throw salvage covers and runners immediately.
    42. Illuminate inside and outside of structures immediately.
    43. A vacant structure is not worth a firefighter’s life. Focus on a quick hit, or immediate exterior attack with emphasis on exposure protection.
    44. General attack order should be:
    1. Locate
    2. Confine
    3. Extinguish
    45. A room and contents is a wood shake structure may require the use of a deck gun to insure venting fire does not spread.
    46. When searching above the fire, leave a firefighter with a radio at the base of the stairs to warn the search team of deteriorating conditions of the fire floor.
    47. If an evacuation of fire personnel from an incident is required, sound all sirens and horns. Leave them on until all personnel are accounted for. All members should report to the vehicle they responded in.
    Remember! We didn’t start the fire. The building is insured and will be rebuilt. It is not worth a firefighter’s life…

    Vehicle Accidents
    1. Size-up the situation.
    2. Position Command Unit in command location
    3. Give condition report.
    4. Position apparatus in location for possible extrication.
    5. Use lighting equipment when needed.
    6. Don protective clothing (and SCBA if fire involved.)
    7. Walk around incident (Inner Circle Survey)
    8. Walk around vehicle (Inner Circle Survey)
    9. The inner/outer circle surveys should tell you:
    a. # of victims
    b. # of vehicles
    c. Hazards
    d. Need for extrication
    e. Need for additional resources
    f. etc.
    10. Give more complete size-up.
    11. Hand out appropriate ID vests
    12. If hazard exist, remove it… foam, protection line, etc.
    13. Stabilize vehicle(s)
    a. Set chalk blocks
    b. Set step chocks
    c. Remove valve stems or release air in tires
    d. Winch, tow straps
    e. Cribbing, air bags
    14. Gain access to victims. (Check to see if the door is unlocked.)
    15. Triage victims
    16. Stabilize victims, apply spinal devices.
    17. Order-up additional resources as needed.
    18. Set up extrication equipment as needed.
    19. Order up any additional resources as needed.
    20. Extricate victims by order of victim priority.
    21. Perform extrication evolutions as needed.
    a. Windows Remove, roll down if possible
    b. Posts Cut
    c. Roof Remove or flap
    d. Door(s) Remove, spread, or flap
    e. Steering column Cut spokes, push, pull, cut, lift
    f. Seat Push, pull or cut
    g. Dash Roll-up, pull, lift
    h. Fender/Mud guard Lift
    22. Set-up EMS area as needed.
    23. Set-up staging area as needed.
    24. Set-up triage area as needed.
    Auto Extrication Points to Remember:
    Car Busters and Holmotro Videos provide the basis for our auto extrication procedures. However, home grown ideas make up 50% of what we do.
    The sawzall is the fastest way to make a relied cut on a roof.
    The sawzall is the fastest way to cut the B, C and D posts.
    The sawzall will allow you to cut a back door on a 2 door car to access back seat passengers. (Third door conversion.)
    The sawzall can weaken the B post at the floor level to allow you to fold it down to get it out of the way.
    The sawzall can be used to cut the nader pin, or cut through door hinges.
    The sawzall will cut through a steering column.
    Deploy cord lights or generator lights on at least 2 sides of the car, hopefully all 4 sides.
    Deploy cool lights inside the car, 1 on the floor, and 1 on the rear view mirror.
    A rescuer should be underneath the blanket with the victim.
    Cribbing underneath the driver’s eat floor will help prevent the spreader from poking through the floor when you try to lift the steering column.
    Protect the victims on all cuts and spreads with a long or short backboard.
    If you notice any sign of fuel leakage, immediately place a 1” line with the MEX nozzle with the pump at idle under the leak on the uphill side of the vehicle; allow it to run and spread foam throughout the area.
    If the vehicle passenger compartment reeks with fuel vapor, fill the passenger compartment with foam and then cover the ground area.
    Our department goal is 2 spreaders, 1 multi-purpose tool, 2 cutters, 3 sawzalls and 1 pack hammer in use on all calls.
    When removing a door, start at the hinges.
    Extrication Procedures
    5 Firefighters Command
    1 Command Officer Division A Division B
    2 On an Engine Right Side Left Side
    3 On a Chase Vehicle
    4 Personnel, #1, #2, #3, #4
    #1 Flood lights
    #2 Cordlights, interior and exterior
    #1 Outer circle survey with blanket roll and flat head axe/halligan tool. Come back to command with any hazard notifications. Remove debris that may effect rescue. If fuel present place MEX on 1” and foam the area.
    #2 Inner circle survey with step chocks. Come back to command with victim count, place step chocks.
    #3 Start power unit, switch to cutter, deploy cutter and short board to protect occupants.
    #4 Deploy spreader, medium ram, ram base and mini cutter.
    #1 Pull valve stems.
    #2 Enter vehicle, roll down windows all the way (Leave 1 inch), unlock all doors, cut seat belts, calm victim and maintain C-Spine.
    #1 Apply C-Collar to victim(s).
    #2, #4 Remove windshield
    #3 Start cutting B post on the side of the car that the glass removal starts on. Place backboard to protect victims.
    #1 Start patient survey, notify #2 if spokes on wheel need to be cut, or if pedals or knobs are a problem.
    #2 Hand mini cutter to #1 if needed.
    #4 Remove or break all remaining glass.
    #2, #4 Make purchases on all door locks and hinges.
    #2 Bring a (cutter, sawzall, packhammer, 5” cutter, or multi-purpose tool.) Start cutting remaining posts.
    #4 Bring additional cutter and KED and finish any remaining cuts.
    #2 Upon roof removal, assist #1 with applying the KED.
    #3 Start door removal at point of victim removal. Most critical victim first.
    #4 Bring second spreader or multi-purpose tool, start doors.
    #3 Lift dash with spreader, or push dash with ram.
    #4 Push seat with spreader or ram. (Note: only move metal or push seats as far as you need them to go.)
    Note: When additional firefighters arrive, assign them to assist #1, #3 or #4.
    Wires Down
    1. En route insure gas company response.
    2. Insure all units stage one block away at intersections to close off access.
    3. Don protective clothing. Hand out appropriate ID vests.
    4. Don’t allow anyone access to the area.
    5. Stay alert.
    6. Illuminate the entire area.
    7. Send unit to pick-up barricades at public works for long duration incidents.

    Radio Procedures
    1. Duty officers sign on immediately with dispatch after the initial dispatch via portable radio on channel Three (3). Then immediately change to channel One (1) to acknowledge responding units.
    2. All units when responding will identify themselves as follows:
    a. 01 Duty Officer
    b. 22 Engine
    c. 99 Utility
    d. Task Force 3422 Engine with a chase vehicle
    e. Etc.
    3. All duty officer transmissions to Suisun or Solano dispatch will be on channel Thress (3).
    4. All transmission between the duty officer and other units will be on channel One (1).
    5; Duty Officer transmissions to Suisun on Channel Three (3):
    a. Suisun 3401 Responding
    b. Suisun 3401 On Scene
    c. Suisun 3401 Hit the 470 and 480 tone for rehab.
    d. Suisun 3401 (Initial condition report)
    e. Suisun 3401 Secure this call
    6. Initial Duty Officer transmissions on channel One (1).
    a. Condition report
    b. Resource assignments
    c. Tactical assignments
    7. Command to divisions on channel One (1).
    8. Divisions to units on channel Two (2).
    9. Vehicle to vehicle transmissions on channel Six (6):
    a. Mike, you lay the supply line
    b. Angel, you start positive pressure ventilation.
    c. Etc.
    10. All request for fire mutual air shall be requested directly through Dispatch on channel One (1). This includes: engines, power wagons, trucks, air units, etc.
    11. In any case the assignment of radio channels may be altered by the duty officer when the situation requires such.

    Multiple Calls:
    1st call Duty officer ) use channel 1
    2nd call 1st officer to come up responding, use channel 2.
    3rd call 1st officer to come up responding, use channel 6.
    5th call 1st officer to come up responding, use channel 4.
    Note: If after 60 seconds from the time of dispatch, an officer does not answer-up, the first engineer to answer-up will run the call.

    General Responsibilities
    Incident Commander
    A. Responsible for strategy (thinking) of the incident.
    B. Provides a visible command presence.
    C. Provides radio contact with all inside and outside agencies.
    D. Order or cancels all resources.
    E. Assigns operations, staging, water supply, divisions, etc.
    F. Directly responsible for the incident.
    G. Insures that the operation is performed by the book.
    H. Is the final authority in the absence of the chief.

    Operations Officer:
    A. Responsible for tactics (doing tasks).
    B. Provides a visible incident leader.
    C. Provides divisions to assist in suppression.
    D. Makes sure incident is handled per command strategy.
    E. Maintains constant updates to command.

    Staging Officer:
    A. Provides a visible liaison for all incoming units.
    B. Holds all incoming units unless otherwise directed by command.
    C. Assigns incoming units per request from command.
    D. Sets up in a parking lot or wide street.
    E. Coordinates summary of incident to incoming units.

    1. West staging vest.
    2. Be visible.
    3. No one gets by you without an assignment from command.
    4. Communicate with command on command frequency.
    5. Insure command’s requests to dispatch are carried out. Example: Command orders three engines, make sure dispatch tones out three engines in the order our mutual aid sheet says, (See page C3).
    6. Keep a list of requests made, (See Page C2) for mutual aid and then assign them names when they arrive. Example: three engines…3310, 3211, 3515, etc.
    7. When units arrive at staging, ask who is in charge of the company and add that to your list.
    8. Ask how many firefighters are on board, and record the number.
    9. Ask the unit call sigh, and keep a list.
    10. Ask if everyone has proper gear, turnouts, brush gear, SCBA, etc.
    11. Once your check list is complete, notify command that: one engine with three firefighters is available, give him the call sign.
    12. Give the mutual aid unit their assignment, tell them who to report to, and give exact directions on how to get there.
    13. Let them know that no one leaves the fire ground without checking out through staging, then call Dispatch and inform them that they have been released. The staging officer needs to witness that transmission and keep a list.
    14. All mutual air units must report wither directly to Command, or better yet to Operations, or the division they will be working.
    15. The only exception to the above is if they have been assigned as their own division.
    16. Command should assign a channel or hand them a radio, and inform them who they report to. Normally channel One for Command to talk to Operations and Divisions. Channel Two for Divisions to talk to individual companies. Channel Three is for Command and Staging to request additional resources, and communicate with dispatch. Channel Six is for companies to talk to companies.

    Mutual Aid Resources Sheet
    Command Title: Command Freq:
    Incident Location:
    Staging Location:
    Unit # Time In Type OIC # of Pers. Prot. Clot. Freq Assigned to Time Out
    3312 04:33 Engine Smith 4 yes Ch #5 DIV B 04:59

    When You Go Mutual Aid
    1. Call dispatch on the phone for directions.
    2. 2 people on a brush rig or Rehab with complete gear and map.
    3. 3 people on an engine, truck with complete gear and map of the area.
    Ideal Crew Set-up:
    a. Officer/Engineer/Firefighter
    b. Officer/Engineer/Rookie
    c. Engineer/Firefighter/Firefighter
    d. Engineer/Firefighter/Rookie
    e. Firefighter/Firefighter/Firefighter
    f. Firefighter/Firefighter/Rookie
    g. Engineer/Rookie/Rookie (last resort only)
    h. Firefighter/Rookie/Rookie (last resort only)
    4. Sign on to dispatch “dispatch, 3434 responding to the structure fire; etc.”
    5. Ask which frequency to be on.
    6. Ask where the staging area is.
    7. When on scene, say “ staging, 3434 on scene.”
    8. No answer, say “ command, 3434 on scene.”
    9. No answer, call dispatch on channel 3 and have then reach command for you.
    10. Check in at staging or command.
    11. When leaving the scene, sign out, call Dispatch on channel 3 and say, “Solano 3434 released from fire and returning to district.”

    Quick Access Preplan Form
    Building Address: 361 South 100 East
    Building Description: 25’ x 25’, 1-story wood-frame brick veneer dwelling
    Units responding:
    Available Flow:
    Note: The Required Fire Flow is abased on involvement of the lowest floor.
    Needed Fire Flow:
    Personnel Required for GPM Delivery:
    Required Personnel for Search, Pump, Operation, Rescue, Logistics, Relief:
    Personnel/GPM Delivery Needs
    25% 50% 75% 100%
    50 100 150 200
    Fire Behavior Prediction: Fast horizontal and vertical spread
    Strategy: Search for and rescue occupants; confine and extinguish the fire
    Problems Anticipated: Life hazard at late night incident
    Hazards to Personnel None more than usual for a dwelling
    Standpipes: Sprinklers:

  8. #8
    Firehouse.com Guest


    And I thought I typed long posts, but LHS* you win LOL just kidding.

    One thing my department did just over a year ago was change from the name of it from S.O.P.'s to S.O.G.'s. The "G" being Guidelines. I guess this was to throw off any lawyers trying to make a name for themselves incase we didn't follow it to a tee.

    But it does work out better so that you can make some subtle changes due to various conditions without having to worry about being sued.

    The opinions I express are my own and not of my department.

  9. #9
    MembersZone Subscriber

    Join Date
    Jan 2004

    Default SOP on Power Point

    I have our SOP's on powerpoint if you are interested. Let me know via email.


  10. #10
    MembersZone Subscriber
    ROOKIELZ's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2004


    Quote Originally Posted by rumlfire
    I am looking for input on creating some SOP's for our volunteer fire department. The volunteer department that I belong to has 20 members, one station and is in a small rural community(1000 people). We run fire and rescue calls, most of which are in rural areas. I hope everyone had a safe and happy holiday season. Thanks!
    Something else to keep in mind is the difference between policy and procedure.

    Policy is why we do things this way eg; safety of members, property protection

    Procedure is how we are going to do something

    Our Dept sounds very similar to yours.
    Take care, stay safe.
    If you are willing to teach;
    I am willing to learn.

  11. #11
    MembersZone Subscriber
    mcaldwell's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2003
    Panorama, British Columbia, Canada


    Holy Crap Guys!

    Answering a 5 year old thread???

    I think he probably figured it out by now.
    Never argue with an Idiot. They drag you down to their level, and then beat you with experience!


  12. #12
    MembersZone Subscriber
    ROOKIELZ's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2004


    What can I say...I work slowly
    If you are willing to teach;
    I am willing to learn.

  13. #13
    MembersZone Subscriber

    Join Date
    Jul 1999
    Flanders, NJ



  14. #14
    Forum Member

    Join Date
    May 2005


    Perfection Takes Time

  15. #15
    Forum Member

    Join Date
    Aug 2006

    Default SOP's

    Quote Originally Posted by PFDFIREDOG
    Perfection Takes Time
    go to horrycountyfirerescue.com you can download there SOP's on there main page this should help.

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