Thread: Help!

  1. #1
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    TED1435's Avatar
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    Apr 2006
    North Carolina

    Exclamation Help!

    Hey all!

    Im new to the website, and i need some help!

    I am taking Instructional Methodology, and I need some help with my topic for my one hour presentation. My topic is apparatus placement. Sounds easy enough, but Im only 19 and have never driven a fire truck before! Any help would be greatly appreciated! Thanks!

  2. #2
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    THEFIRENUT's Avatar
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    Dec 2000
    East Texas


    Quote Originally Posted by TED1435
    Hey all!

    Im new to the website, and i need some help!

    I am taking Instructional Methodology, and I need some help with my topic for my one hour presentation. My topic is apparatus placement. Sounds easy enough, but Im only 19 and have never driven a fire truck before! Any help would be greatly appreciated! Thanks!
    I think that we need some help from YOU first. What is this class for? And why are you doing your presentation on an unfamiliar topic? Anyway here is something that might get you headed in the right direction. Take care!!

    Sample Apparatus Placement SOP

    This procedure is intended to guide placement of apparatus on the fireground for maximum advantage,
    depending on company function. Safety is always the first priority when considering where to place

    First Arriving Engine Company
    The first arriving apparatus on the fireground will typically be assigned Engine Company function, and
    should normally position just past the front of the structure, leaving room for the Truck Company. This
    placement will usually allow the Engine Company Officer a three sided look at the fire building and
    exposures for size-up.

    Other criteria to consider are:
    Best deployment of initial attack line(s)
    Avoid blocking access for other apparatus if possible
    Maintain a safe distance from the fire building (avoid making the apparatus an exposure).
    If laying in a supply line, place hose at the edge of the road/street.

    First Arriving Truck Company
    The next arriving apparatus will typically be assigned Truck Company function, and should normally
    position directly in front of the structure to allow for good access to tools, power cords from generators,
    and scene lighting. Also, consider the following:
    Do not position in a way to hinder water supply needs of the Engine Company.
    Avoid blocking access for other apparatus..

    Additional Arriving Units
    The third arriving apparatus will usually function as an Engine Company with responsibility for assuring a
    secure water supply and assuming RIC function. Additional apparatus will be given assignments by the IC.
    Additional units should:
    Remain uncommitted (staged) several hundred yards from the scene until give a clear assignment.
    Once assigned, do not position too close to another company, to allow room to deploy hose,
    ladders and equipment.
    Avoid blocking access for other apparatus or water supply.

    Safety Considerations for all Apparatus Placement
    Avoid parking under overhead power lines.
    Always park in a way that provides a means of egress.
    Watch for unstable ground, septic tanks, etc.
    When positioning in driveways try to back in.
    Staff, support, and command vehicles should position outside the perimeter of working apparatus.
    Always consider the collapse zone.

    Got this from: Enchanted Circle Regional Fire Association

    p.s. there are also considerations for vehicle placement on highways and other roads for firefighter safety, but that is another story!
    Just someone trying to help! (And by the way....Thanks for YOUR help!)

    Aggressive does not have to equal stupid.

    ** "The comments made here are this person's views and possibly that of the organizations to which I am affiliated" **

  3. #3
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    backsteprescue123's Avatar
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    Apr 2004


    Canandaigua Fire Department S.O.P.

    Apparatus Placement
    # A-032

    Date: 10/29/93

    Apparatus function should regulate placement. Poor apparatus placement can reverse this rule, limiting the options or eliminating functions to which a unit could be assigned.

    Fire fighters operate with a natural inclination to drive apparatus as close to the fire as possible. This often results in positioning of apparatus that is both dysfunctional and dangerous. The placement of all apparatus on the fireground should be a reflection of the following:

    Standard operational procedure for first arriving apparatus
    Staging procedure
    A direct order from Command
    A conscious decision on the part of the apparatus driver based on existing or predictable conditions
    Effective apparatus placement must begin with the arrival of first units. The placement of the initial arriving engine and ladder should be based upon initial size-up and general conditions upon arrival. Generally the first engine proceeds just past the fire building leaving room for the ladder in front.

    First arriving apparatus should place themselves to maximum advantage and go to work; later arriving units should be placed in a manner that builds on the initial plan and allows for expansion of the operation.

    Avoid "belly to butt" placement on the fireground. Do not drive all fire apparatus directly in front of the fire. Reserve and mutual aid apparatus should stage a minimum of one block short of the immediate fire area and remain uncommitted until ordered into action by Command. Apparatus drivers should select staged positions with a maximum of tactical options and as assigned by S.O.P. if applicable.

    In large, complex, and lengthy fireground operations additional apparatus should be staged consistent with Level II Staging procedure. Under these procedures, Command communicates directly with the Staging Officer for the additional resource required on the fireground.

    Command must maintain an awareness that access provides tactical options and that the immediate fire area can quickly become congested with apparatus. The officer must regard apparatus on the fireground in two categories:

    Apparatus that is working
    Apparatus that is parked
    Park out of the way. Apparatus that is not working should be left in the Staging Area or parked where it will not compromise access.

    Maintain access lane down the center of streets wherever possible or down the side of the street opposite that which the hydrants are located on.

    Think of fire apparatus as an expensive exposure: position working apparatus in a manner that considers the extent and location of the fire and a pessimistic evaluation of fire spread and building failure. Anticipate the heat which may be released with structural collapse. Apparatus should generally be positioned at least 30 ft. away from involved buildings, even with nothing showing. Greater distances may be required in many situations.

    Beware of putting fire apparatus in places where it cannot be repositioned easily and quickly; particularly operating positions with only one way in and out; i.e., yards, alleys, driveways, etc.

    Beware of overhead power lines when positioning apparatus. Do not park where lines may fall.

    If apparatus does become endangered, operate lines between it and the fire while you reposition it. When you do move it, move it to a position that is safe. It is dysfunctional to move apparatus several times throughout the progress of a fire.

    Take maximum advantage of good operating positions and "build" the capability of units assigned to these effective positions.

    These positions should offer maximum fire attack access to the fire area and be supplied with large diameter supply lines as quickly as possible. Subsequent arriving apparatus can be supplied from this apparatus. Place these "key" apparatus first before access is blocked by later arriving units.

    Key tactical positions should be identified and engines placed in those locations with a strong water supply. The water supply should be at least one pumped line from an engine or a 4" line from a hydrant.

    When high volume is indicated, a pumped supply line from a hydrant should be provided. The forward engine can distribute this water supply to a variety of hand lines, master streams, or devices.

    Take full advantage of hydrants close to the fire before laying additional supply lines to distant hydrants. A pumper hooked up to a hydrant close to the fire can usually supply two "forward" pumpers in attack positions.

    Secondary hydrants should be used to obtain additional supply if the demand exceeds the capability of the closest hydrants.

    Take advantage of the equipment on apparatus already in the fire area instead of bringing in more apparatus. Connect extra lines to pumpers which already have a good supply line instead of making "daisy chain" supply line connections.

    Do not hook up to hydrants so close to the fire building that structural failure or fire extension will jeopardize the apparatus or the supply lines.

    Fire hose soon limits the general access as the fireground operation gets older. Command and Sectors must direct apparatus to important positions as early as possible. Lines should be laid with attention to the access problems they present. Try to lay lines on the same side of street as the hydrant and cross over near the fire.

    When the aerial apparatus is not needed for upper level access or rescue, spot apparatus in a position that would provide an effective position for elevated stream operation if the fire goes to a defensive mode. Ladder drivers must consider extent and location of fire, most dangerous direction of spread, confinement, exposure conditions, overhead obstructions, and structural conditions in spotting apparatus. The truck should be spotted where the aerial can be raised and used effectively without repositioning. It must also be spotted for effective use of hand ladders and allied forcible entry equipment.

    Spot the command vehicle in a manner that will allow maximum visibility of the fire building and surrounding area and the general effect of the apparatus operating on the fire. Command vehicle position should be easy and logical to find and should not restrict the placement or movement of other apparatus.

    Ambulances and rescue units should be spotted in a safe position that will provide the most effective treatment of fire victims and fire fighting personnel, while not blocking movement of other apparatus or interfering with firefighting operations. Consideration must also be given for additional ambulance access to the Treatment Area in situations involving patient transportation.



    Emergency Operations

    II - Fire Company Operations

    Highway Incident Safety




    13.01 PURPOSE
    To provide incident responders with a uniform guide for safe operations at incidents occurring on the highway system.
    To serve as guideline for decision making and can be modified by the incident responders as necessary to address existing incident conditions.
    13.02 POLICY

    It shall be the policy of the Charlottesville Fire Department to respond to and operate on all highway incidents in a safe manner.
    To utilize all safety equipment available to us to provide protection for emergency personnel as well as the public.
    To provide a safe environment on all highway incidents for emergency personnel to operate.
    13.03 PROCEDURES

    A. Response

    Emergency responders need to operate safely, making every effort to minimize the risk of injury to themselves and those who use the highway system. Responders operating in the emergency mode need to operate warning devices and follow the guidelines specific to their standard operating procedures.
    Median strip crossovers marked "Authorized Vehicles Only" shall be used for turning around and crossing to the other travel lanes ONLY when emergency vehicles can complete the turn without obstructing the flow of traffic in either travel direction or all movement has stopped. Under no circumstances shall crossovers be utilized for routine (non-emergency) changes in travel direction.
    Use of U-turn access points in "jersey" barriers on limited access highways is extremely hazardous and shall be utilized only when the situation is necessary for immediate lifesaving measures.
    Response on access ramps shall be in the normal direction of travel, unless the incident commander on the scene can confirm that oncoming traffic has been stopped and no civilian vehicles will be encountered on the ramp.
    Shoulder lanes will be used ONLY by emergency vehicles/apparatus. Emergency support vehicles are authorized to use the shoulder lanes only when directed or authorized to do so by the incident commander.
    Reflective vests assigned to apparatus are to be worn on all highway/roadway incidents regardless of turnout gear use. If a SCBA is not required for the incident than an assigned safety vest should be worn by all Charlottesville Fire Department responders operating on the scene. Either over uniform or turnout coat, day or night. The minimum number of vests shall be directly equal to the number of riding positions in each piece of fire apparatus. Staff vehicles may keep a reduced number.
    B. Arrival

    The first emergency responder arriving to the scene of any highway incident will assume the role of incident commander. The individual assuming that role is subject to change as additional responders arrive at the scene.
    If traffic control assistance is required at an incident scene, the Incident Commander should coordinate with the Police Agency responsible for assistance with traffic control. If VDOT is going to be needed, give Fire Alarm a brief description of what will be needed and have them contact VDOT.
    Standard practice will be to position response vehicles in such a manner as to ensure a safe work area. This may be difficult to accomplish at incidents on secondary and one-lane roads. Position emergency response vehicles in such a manner as to provide the safest area possible.
    C. Parking of Response Vehicles

    Providing a safe incident scene for emergency responders is a priority at every emergency incident. However, consideration must be given to keeping as many traffic lanes open as possible. Except for those vehicles needed in the operation and those used as a shield for the incident scene, other response vehicles should be parked together ("staging area"). As a matter of routine, the parking of response vehicles should be on one side of the roadway. Parking should be on either the shoulder or median area, if one exists, but not both. Parking response vehicles completely out of available travel lanes greatly assists in the movement of traffic. If not needed to illuminate the scene, drivers should remember to turn vehicle headlights off when parked at incidents.
    The proper spotting and placement of emergency apparatus is the joint responsibility of the driver and incident commander. The proper positioning of emergency response vehicles at the scene of an incident assures other responding resources of easy access, a safe working area and helps to contribute to an effective overall operation. The safety of everyone on the scene is foremost while they are are operating, both in emergency and non-emergency situations.
    D. On Scene Actions

    An incident safety zone shall be established, allowing fire and rescue units to position in close proximity of the incident. The responding fire apparatus should be placed some distance from the incident, making use of it as a safety shield blocking only those travel lanes necessary. In the event that a motorist enters the incident safety zone, the fire apparatus will act as barrier; and, in the unlikely event that the fire apparatus is moved upon impact, it will travel away from the incident safety zone.
    Before exiting any emergency response vehicle at an incident, personnel should check to ensure that traffic has stopped to avoid the possibility of being struck by a passing vehicle. Personnel should remember to look down to ensure debris on the roadway will not become an obstacle, resulting in a personal injury. All members shall be in appropriate clothing or traffic vests as the situation indicates.
    As soon as possible, the initial responding unit should position traffic control devices. Traffic cones assist in channeling traffic away from an incident. Traffic control devices shall be used whenever responding vehicles are parked on or near any road surface. Placement of traffic control devices shall begin closest to the incident, working toward on-coming traffic. Taking into consideration the possibility of hazardous materials, traffic control devices shall be placed diagonally across the roadway and around the incident. When placing traffic control devices, care should be exercised to avoid being struck by on-coming traffic. There should be a minimum of SIX large highway cones assigned to each piece of apparatus with reflective tape around the tops.
    The speed of traffic and travel distance must be considered when establishing an incident safety zone. The following chart provides an example of how traffic control devices are to be placed.
    Posted Speed Limit Distance

    35 MPH 100 FT
    45 MPH 150 FT
    55 MPH 200 FT
    Greater than 55 MPH 250 FT Plus

    E. Emergency Vehicle Visibility at Night

    Glare vision and recovery is the amount of time required to recover from the effects of glare once a light source passes through the eye. It takes at least 6 seconds, going from light to dark and 3 seconds from dark to light for vision to recover.
    At 50 miles per hour, the distance traveled during a second is approximately 75 feet. Thus, in six seconds, the vehicle has traveled 450 feet before the driver has fully regained night vision. This is extremely important to remember when operating on roadways at night.
    The headlights on stopped vehicles can temporarily blind motorists that are approaching an incident scene. Drivers of on-coming vehicles will experience the problem of glare recovery. This essentially means individuals are driving by the emergency scene blind. The wearing of protective clothing and/or traffic vests will not help this "blinded" motorist see emergency responders standing in the roadway. Studies show that at two and one-half car lengths away from a vehicle with its headlights on, the opposing driver is completely blinded.
    Low beam headlights can be used to light an emergency scene using care as to light only the immediate area. Complacency at an incident scene can be hazardous.
    Scene lighting must be positioned so it does not interfere with the visibility of traffic flowing by the scene. The glare from scene lighting can have the same effect as headlights.
    F. Clearing Traffic Lanes

    When outside of a vehicle on a major roadway, both civilian and emergency responders are in an extremely dangerous environment. Therefore, it is imperative to take every precaution to protect all responders and those involved at incident scenes. Although positioning emergency response vehicles to serve as a shield for work areas is a prudent practice, we must remember that reducing and/or shutting down traffic lanes creates other problems and safety concerns. Therefore, it is critical when operational phases are completed that emergency response vehicles be repositioned to allow traffic to flow on as many open lanes as possible.
    Remember that unnecessarily closing or keeping traffic lanes closed greatly increases the risk of a secondary incident occurring in the resulting traffic backup. Five minutes of stopped traffic will cause a 15 minute delay in travel time.
    Management of incidents on the interstate system and local roadways requires the expertise and resources of emergency responders, as defined. While the safety of emergency services personnel is of paramount concern for the incident commander, the flow of traffic must be taken into consideration at all times. The closing of roadways disrupts traffic throughout the area as well as having a significant impact on businesses throughout the region.
    Keeping the safety of all personnel in mind, and coordinating the needs with other emergency services, the incident commander should begin to open any closed lanes as soon as practical.



    Safe Positioning While Operating in or Near Moving Traffic
    Click here to download in MS Word Format.

    I. Overview

    This procedure identifies parking practices for Fire Department apparatus and vehicles that will provide maximum protection and safety for personnel operating in or near moving vehicle traffic. It also identifies several approaches for individual practices to keep firefighters safe while exposed to the hazardous environment created by moving traffic.

    It shall be the policy of the Fire Department to position apparatus and other emergency vehicles at a vehicle-related incident on any street, road, highway or expressway in a manner that best protects the incident scene and the work area. Such positioning shall afford protection to fire department personnel, law enforcement officers, tow service operators and the motoring public from the hazards of working in or near moving traffic.

    All personnel should understand and appreciate the high risk that personnel are exposed to when operating in or near moving vehicle traffic. Responders should always operate within a protected environment at any vehicle-related roadway incident.

    Always consider moving vehicles as a threat to your safety. At every vehicle-related emergency scene, personnel are exposed to passing motorists of varying driving abilities. At any time, a motorist may be driving without a legal driver's license. Approaching vehicles may be driven at speeds from a creeping pace to well beyond the posted speed limit. Some of these vehicle operators may be vision impaired, under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs, or have a medical condition that affects their judgement or abilities. In addition, motorists may be completely oblivious to your presence due to distractions caused by cell phone use, loud music, conversation, inclement weather, and terrain or building obstructions. Approaching motorists will often be looking at the scene and not the roadway in front of them. Assume that all approaching traffic is out to get you until proven otherwise.

    Nighttime incidents requiring personnel to work in or near moving near traffic are particularly hazardous. Visibility is reduced and driver reaction time to hazards in the roadway is slowed.

    II. Terminology

    The following terms shall be used during incident operations, post-incident analysis, and training activities related to working in or near moving traffic.

    1. Advance Warning - notification procedures that advise approaching motorists to transition from normal driving status to that required by the temporary emergency traffic control measures ahead of them.
    2. Block - positioning a fire department apparatus on an angle to the lanes of traffic creating a physical barrier between upstream traffic and the work area. Includes 'block to the right' or' block to the left'.

    3. Buffer Zone - the distance or space between personnel and vehicles in the protected work zone and nearby moving traffic.

    4. Downstream - the direction that traffic is moving as it travels away from the incident scene.

    5. Flagger - a fire department member assigned to monitor approaching traffic and activate an emergency signal if the actions of a motorist do not conform to established traffic control measures in place at the highway scene

    6. Shadow - the protected work area at a vehicle-related roadway incident that is shielded by the block from apparatus and other emergency vehicles.

    7. Taper - the action of merging several lanes of moving traffic into fewer moving lanes.

    8. Temporary Work Zone - the physical area of a roadway within which emergency personnel perform their fire, EMS and rescue tasks at a vehicle-related incident.

    9. Transition Zone - the lanes of a roadway within which approaching motorists change their speed and position to comply with the traffic control measures established at an incident scene.

    10. Upstream - the direction that traffic is traveling from as the vehicles approach the incident scene.

    III. Safety Benchmarks

    All emergency personnel are at great risk of injury or death while operating in or near moving traffic. There are several specific tactical procedures that should be taken to protect all crewmembers and emergency service personnel at the incident scene including;

    1. Never trust approaching traffic
    2. Avoid turning your back to approaching traffic

    3. Establish an initial "block" with the first arriving emergency vehicle or fire apparatus

    4. Always wear Class III high visibility reflective vests during daylight operations

    5. Always wear structural firefighting helmet

    6. Wear full protective clothing plus the highway safety vest at all vehicle-related emergencies between the hours of dusk and dawn or whenever lighting levels are reduced due to inclement weather conditions

    7. Turn off all sources of vision impairment to approaching motorists at nighttime incidents including vehicle headlights and spotlights

    8. Use fire apparatus and police vehicles to initially redirect the flow of moving traffic

    9. Establish advance warning and adequate transition area traffic control measures upstream of incident to reduce travel speeds of approaching motorists

    10. Use traffic cones and/or cones illuminated by flares where appropriate for sustained highway incident traffic control and direction

    11. Establish a fire department member assigned to the "Flagger" function to monitor approaching traffic and activate an emergency signal if the actions of a motorist do not conform to established traffic control measures in place at the highway scene

    IV. Apparatus and Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks

    Listed below are benchmarks for Safe Parking of apparatus and emergency vehicles when operating in or near moving traffic.

    1. Always position first-arriving apparatus to protect the scene, patients, and emergency personnel.

    a. Initial apparatus placement should provide a work area protected from traffic approaching in at least one direction.
    b. Angle apparatus on the roadway with a "block to the left" or a "block to the right" to create a physical barrier between the crash scene and approaching traffic.

    c. Allow apparatus placement to slow approaching motorists and redirect them around the scene.

    d. Use fire apparatus to block at least one additional traffic lane more than that already obstructed by the crashed vehicle(s).

    e. When practical, position apparatus in such a manner to protect the pump operator position from being exposed to approaching traffic.

    2. Positioning of large apparatus must create a safe parking area for EMS units and other fire vehicles. Operating personnel, equipment and patients should be kept within the "shadow" created by the blocking apparatus at all times.

    3. When blocking with apparatus to protect the emergency scene, establish a sufficient size work zone that includes all damaged vehicles, roadway debris, the patient triage and treatment area, the extrication work area, personnel and tool staging area and the ambulance loading zone.

    4. Ambulance should be positioned within the protected work area with their rear patient loading door area angled away from the nearest lanes of moving traffic

    5. Command shall stage unneeded emergency vehicles off the roadway or return these units to service whenever possible.

    6. At all intersections, or where the incident may be near the middle lane of the roadway, two or more sides of the incident will need to be protected.

    a. Police vehicles must be strategically positioned to expand the initial safe work zone for traffic approaching from opposing directions. The goal is to effectively block all exposed sides of the work zone. The blocking of the work zone must be prioritized, from the most critical or highest traffic volume flow to the least critical traffic direction.
    b. For first arriving engine or truck companies where a charged hoseline may be needed, block so that the pump panel is "down stream", on the opposite side of on-coming traffic. This will protect the pump operator.

    c. At intersection incidents, consider requesting police response. Provide specific directions to the police officers as to exactly what your traffic control needs are. Ensure that police vehicles are parked in a position and location that provides additional protection of the scene.

    7. Traffic cones shall be deployed from the rear of the blocking apparatus toward approaching traffic to increase the advance warning provided for approaching motorists. Cones identify and only suggest the transition and tapering actions that are required of the approaching motorist.

    8. Personnel shall place cones and flares and retrieve cones while facing oncoming traffic.

    9. Traffic cones shall be deployed at 15 foot intervals upstream of the blocking apparatus with the furthest traffic cone approximately 75 feet upstream to allow adequate advance warning to drivers

    10. Additional traffic cones shall be retrieved from PD units to extend the advance warning area for approaching motorists.

    V. Incident Command Benchmarks

    The initial-arriving company officer and/or the Incident Commander must complete critical benchmarks to assure that a safe and protected work environment for emergency scene personnel is established and maintained including;

    1. Assure that the first-arriving apparatus establishes an initial block to create an initial safe work area
    2. Assign a parking location for all ambulances as well as later-arriving apparatus.

    Lanes of traffic shall be identified numerically as "Lane 1", "Lane 2", etc., beginning from the right to the left when right and left are considered from the approaching motorist's point of view. Typically, vehicles travel a lower speed in the lower number lanes.
    Directions "Right" and "Left" shall be as identified as from the approaching motorist's point of view left or right.

    Instruct the driver of the ambulance to "block to the right" or "block to the left" as it is parked at the scene to position the rear patient loading area away from the closest lane of moving traffic.

    3. Assure that all ambulances on-scene are placed within the protected work area(shadow) of the larger apparatus.

    4. Assure that all patient loading into Med Units is done from within a protected work zone.

    5. The initial company officer and/or Incident Commander must operate as the Scene Safety Officer until this assignment is delegated.

    6. Command shall assure that Opticom strobe systems are turned OFF and that other emergency lighting remains ON.

    7. At residential medical emergencies, Command shall direct ambulances to park at the nearest curb to the residence for safe patient loading whenever possible.

    V. Emergency Crew Personnel Benchmarks

    Listed below are benchmarks for safe actions of individual personnel when operating in or near moving vehicle traffic.

    1. Always maintain an acute awareness of the high risk of working in or near moving traffic. They are out to get you!
    2. Never trust moving traffic.

    3. Always look before you move!

    4. Always keep an eye on the moving traffic!

    5. Avoid turning your back to moving traffic.

    6. Personnel arriving in crew cabs of fire apparatus should exit and enter the apparatus from the protected 'shadow' side, away from moving traffic.

    7. Officers, apparatus operators, crew members in apparatus with individual jump seat configurations and all ambulance personnel must exit and enter their units with extreme caution remaining alert to moving traffic at all times.

    8. Protective clothing, Class III safety vest, and helmet must be donned prior to exiting the emergency vehicle.

    a. During normal daylight lighting conditions, don helmet and Class III safety vest or structural PPE and Class III vest when operating in or near moving traffic.
    b. During dusk to dawn operations or when ambient lighting is reduced due to inclement weather conditions, don helmet, full protective clothing and Class III vest.

    c. All staff personnel and assigned student trainee personnel arriving on an apparatus or emergency vehicle must don assigned helmet and Class III vest prior to exiting their vehicle.

    9. Always look before opening doors and stepping out of apparatus or emergency vehicle into any moving traffic areas. When walking around fire apparatus or emergency vehicle, be alert to the your proximity to moving traffic.

    a. Stop at the corner of the unit, check for traffic, and then proceed along the unit remaining as close to the emergency vehicle as possible.
    b. Maintain a 'reduced profile' when moving through any area where a minimum 'buffer zone' condition exists.

    10. Police Department personnel may place traffic cones or flares at the scene to direct traffic. This action builds upon initial FD cone deployment and can be expanded, if needed, as later arriving Police Officers arrive. Always place and retrieve cones while facing on-coming traffic.

    11. Placing flares, where safe to do so, adjacent to and in combination with traffic cones for nighttime operations greatly enhances scene safety. Where safe and appropriate to do so, place warning flares to slow and direct approaching traffic.

    VI. High-Volume, Limited Access Highway Operations

    High-volume limited access highways include the expressways, Tollway, and multi-lane roadways within the FD response area. The Police Department and Department of Transportation (DOT) have a desire to keep the traffic moving on these high-volume thoroughfares. When in the judgement of FD Command it becomes essential for the safety of operating personnel and the patients involved, any or all lanes, shoulders, and entry/exit ramps of these limited access highways can be completely shut down. This, however, should rarely occur and should be for as short a period of time as practical.

    Unique Safe Parking procedures at expressway, Tollway, and limited-access, high-volume multi-lane roadway incidents;

    1. First-arriving engine company apparatus shall establish an initial block of the lane(s) occupied by the damaged vehicle plus one additional traffic lane.
    2. A ladder truck apparatus shall be automatically dispatched to all vehicle-related incidents on all limited-access, high-volume expressways, Tollway, and highways with the City.

    3. The primary assignment of this Truck company apparatus and crew shall be to;

    a. Establish an upstream block occupying a minimum of two lanes plus the paved shoulder of the highway or blockage of three driving lanes of traffic upstream of the initial block provided by the first-due apparatus.
    b. The position of this apparatus shall take into consideration all factors that limit sight distance of the approaching traffic including ambient lighting conditions, weather-related conditions, road conditions, design curves, bridges, hills and over- or underpasses.

    c. Traffic cones and/or cones illuminated by flares should be placed upstream of the ladder truck apparatus by the ladder truck crew at the direction of the company officer.

    d. Traffic cones on limited-access, high-volume roadways shall be placed farther apart , with the last cone approximately 150 feet "upstream", to allow adequate warning to drivers. Personnel shall place cones and flares and retrieve cones while facing the traffic.

    e. Assign a Flagger person to monitor the response of approaching motorists as they are directed to transition to a slower speed and taper into merged lanes of traffic.

    f. Notify Command on the incident operating channel of any approaching traffic that is not responding to the speed changes, transition, tapering and merging directions.

    g. Flagger shall activate a pre-determined audible warning to operating personnel of a non-compliant motorist approaching.

    h. Driver operator of ladder truck apparatus shall sound a series of long blasts on the apparatus air horn to audibly warn all operating personnel of the concern for the actions of an approaching motorist.

    4. Police Department vehicles will be used to provide additional blocking of additional traffic lanes as needed. Med Units shall always be positioned within the safe work zone.

    5. Staging of additional companies off the highway may be required. Ambulances may be brought onto the highway scene one or two at a time. An adequate size multi-patient loading area must be established.

    6. Command should establish a liaison with the Police Department as soon as possible to jointly coordinate a safe work zone and to determine how to most efficiently resolve the incident and establish normal traffic flows.

    7. The termination of the incident must be managed with the same aggressiveness as initial actions. Crews, apparatus, and equipment must be removed from the highway promptly, to reduce exposure to moving traffic and minimize traffic congestion.

    Officer's Safe Parking "Cue Card"

    "Block" with first-arriving apparatus to protect the scene, patients, and emergency personnel.

    Block at least one additional lane
    Block so pump panel is "down stream"
    Block most critical or highest traffic volume direction first
    Consider requesting additional PD assistance

    Crews wear proper PPE w/Helmet

    Class III vests at all times
    Helmet at all times
    Full PPE plus Class III vest between dusk and dawn or inclement weather

    Establish more than adequate advance warning

    Traffic cones at 15' intervals
    Deploy minimum 5 cones upstream
    Cones only "Suggest" they don't Block!
    Expand initial safe work zone

    Direct placement of ambulances

    Assure ambulances park within shadow of larger apparatus as directed
    Lane 1 is furthest right lane, next is Lane 2, then Lane 3, etc. from approaching motorist's point of view
    Direct ambulance to "block to the right" or "block to the left" to protect loading doors

    Place ambulance patient loading area facing away from closest lane of moving traffic

    All patient loading into Med Units is done from within a protected work zone

    You are the Scene Safety Officer

    Consider assigning FF as upstream "Spotter" as necessary for approaching traffic

    Night or Reduced Light Conditions

    Turn OFF vehicle headlights
    Turn OFF Opticom
    Provide overall scene lighting
    All personnel in PPE w/helmets
    Illuminate cones with flares
    Consider additional Truck company for additional upstream "Block"

    Limited access, high-volume highway incidents

    Establish initial block: minimum two lanes
    Ladder truck establishes upstream block

    two lanes plus paved shoulder or
    three driving lanes

    Place cones and/or cones illuminated by flares upstream of ladder truck apparatus

    last cone approximately 150 feet "upstream" of apparatus

    Establish Flagger position

    monitor approaching traffic
    sound emergency signal as necessary

    Driver operator of ladder truck apparatus

    sound a series of long blasts on apparatus air horn as necessary
    Use police department vehicles for additional blocking
    Stage additional companies off highway
    Establish liaison with Police Department
    Terminate incident aggressively



    Hope these help.
    These opinions are mine and do not reflect the opinions of any organizations I am affiliated with.

  4. #4
    Forum Member
    THEFIRENUT's Avatar
    Join Date
    Dec 2000
    East Texas


    RFRDxplorer....I think you just about covered it all (and then some). Good job
    Just someone trying to help! (And by the way....Thanks for YOUR help!)

    Aggressive does not have to equal stupid.

    ** "The comments made here are this person's views and possibly that of the organizations to which I am affiliated" **

  5. #5
    Forum Member
    backsteprescue123's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2004


    Quote Originally Posted by THEFIRENUT
    RFRDxplorer....I think you just about covered it all (and then some). Good job

    Thanks Firenut.

    Hope it all helped.
    These opinions are mine and do not reflect the opinions of any organizations I am affiliated with.

  6. #6
    MembersZone Subscriber

    Join Date
    Mar 2003
    Pearl River,NY - USA


    Where do you live? If you are in NY, contact the state Fire Academy Library, they have a world of info., books, videos etc.

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