"It's like a deer in the headlights," he said. "They knew they had to get out of there, but they were unable to move." He said this condition is similar to, but far worse than tunnel vision, as it can completely shut a person down. Fires and gravity have laws of physics they predicably follow, Gasaway points out. However, firefighters and commanders who have become overloaded with sensory stimulus often fail to see the signs of pending doom -- evidence that a Mayday situation is brewing.
Fortunately, there are exercises and lessons to help commanders manage the high level of stimulus and keep a focus on situational awareness, but they have to be learned and practiced.
"You have to be prepared in advance," he said. "It's just like driving. You have to practice. You don't just jump on the highway and go 60."
Three steps to maintaining control and situational awareness
He recommends that commanders and firefighters recognize the conditions they are in. Then, those on the fire scene should step back "like an out-of-body experience," he said, to get an overview of the scene and the situation.
Gasaway said that's the first step of three in maintaining control and the all important situational awareness.
He recommends commanders write three little reminders to themselves on a clipboard at fire scenes to prevent mental lock up - or have them on a card in their pocket, or taped into their helmets.
First is keeping aware of the “clues and cues,” like changes in smoke conditions, water supply situations, collapse dangers, exposure, etc.
Next is “comprehension” of those signs, and then “projecting” into, or predicting the future based on the available information, Gasaway said.
One way to do that is to reverse project, Gasaway said. "Take a look at what's happened in the 15 minutes prior to your arrival," he said. "Mom was in the kitchen cooking dinner and the kids were downstairs watching Elmo and now the house is on fire."
He likened it to trying jump on a moving train; you have to know how fast it's moving if you want to time your move right.
A constant cycle of reviewing those three items - clues and cues, comprehension, and predicting - will help commanders keep control of incidents and help prevent Maydays, Gasaway said.
Preparing for the predictable and the unpredictable
While his mantra is preventing Maydays, he knows that there are circumstances that can't be prevented. However, the excuse of rapidly changing fire conditions isn't one of them. "If people had been situationally aware, they would have seen the clues and cues and where they were headed," he said, noting that fire behavior and physics of gravity follow laws and are generally predictable to those paying attention.
Unpredictable things can happen in life, Gasaway said, noting that an engine falling off a DC-9 plane and landing somewhere is unpredictable, as is the disabled plane that killed an unfortunate South Carolina jogger as it came in for an emergency landing.
That's why it's important to be prepared for Maydays even while trying to avoid them at all cost. A well-trained, well-equipped Rapid Intervention Crew is vital to keeping firefighters safe, he said.
However, Gasaway hopes his teachings will keep RICs from ever being deployed, especially for situations that could be predicted.
Gasaway said he knows he's got an uphill battle teaching human behavior and brain science to the fire service.
"There was a time that I would have rather stuck a pen in my eyeball than sit in a classroom all day listening to brain science," Gasaway admits. However, his experience with Mayday conditions changed that and he decided to learn more and share his knowledge.
In classes he has taught, firefighters and commanders have said they learned things they never heard in Level I or II firefighting courses or in their incident commander class.
Gasaway said there's a "culture of ego" and a determination to "slay the dragon" no matter the size or force that makes it difficult for people to teach vital information about human behavior that can save lives. However, he's determined to get his message out to all who will listen.
"It's a strong message and I've got a lot of work to do, but if we want to stop killing firefighters, we've got to do more to get the word out," he said.