PHILADELPHIA (AP) -- When parks or public works face tighter budgets, their staffers often march on City Hall. But firefighters looking at tough cuts are heading straight for another place - court.
Emergency personnel nationwide are aggressively challenging the legality of job cuts and station closings. They argue the cutbacks violate their bargaining rights and unnecessarily endanger the public.
Nowhere is the move toward legal action more evident than in Pennsylvania, where the state's two largest cities - Pittsburgh and Philadelphia - are embroiled in legal battles with firefighters.
Pennsylvania is hardly alone. In Cleveland, the firefighters union sued to restore some jobs that were lost in initial cost-cutting moves. The city proposed cutting 150 firefighters, but reduced that to about 70 after a court battle and mediation, union President Bob Fisher said.
Firefighters in the financially troubled city of Waterbury, Conn., also are in court over reductions being made by an oversight panel. The panel in March proposed cutting about 70 positions, but the union says the city could do well - and save $1.5 million - by cutting just 28.
The head of the Waterbury Firefighters Association said his members don't want to bankrupt the city, said the cuts don't need to be so drastic.
``We're going to court to use the only defense we have,'' said association President Daniel French.
City officials across the nation say they are doing the best job they can to maintain public safety and stay within their budgets, while also disagreeing with unions on how safety assessments are made.
Debates over fire department staffing long have wreaked havoc on city budgets. Competing studies conducted by firefighters and local officials have often come to different conclusions on whether reductions can be made safely.
Public policy experts say it's difficult to assess the adequacy of staffing at fire departments since they all operate under different circumstances. One researcher at New York University said there's no question that demands on firefighters are higher since Sept. 11, 2001.
``There certainly are a lot more demands being placed on fire departments with all the new responsibilities of homeland security,'' said Tim Raducha, director of research and programs for NYU's Center for Catastrophe Preparedness and Response.
Since the Sept. 11 attacks, the federal government has spent more than $23 billion on emergency preparedness, but most of it has gone toward equipment, not personnel, Raducha said. The government also faces challenges, he said, because of budget constraints.
``It's a challenge of an effective partnership. I don't think the blame can be placed at the federal, state or local level,'' said Raducha, adding that making federal emergency funds more flexible could help with staffing concerns. ``The problem is placed on a combination of things.''
Pittsburgh firefighters sued the city July 24, contending plans to cut 168 of 816 firefighters as part of the city's financial recovery plan violate their bargaining rights and put residents in danger.
And Philadelphia firefighters won an injunction from a judge in June, putting off the proposed closings of four engine companies and four ladder companies. The union argued the cuts, which would save $6.78 million, could put lives at risk.
The city has made cuts in other areas, including the elimination of the Arts and Culture Office. But firefighters say they're not getting a fair shake and have gone on a public offensive, hanging up posters in the city and setting up a Web site.
City officials carefully studied emergency response logs, finding that medical calls had gone up while the number of structure fires had gone down, said Barbara Grant, spokeswoman for Philadelphia Mayor John Street. The city needed to shift resources, she said, while not closing entire firehouses.
``We're committed to our position,'' she said. ``We have a very, very difficult budget to look at.''