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Aug. 29, 1998, began like any other shift for Joe Tomaso, a paramedic working in Danbury, CT. He checked his rig and equipment, did some paperwork and conversed with co-workers. Also during that shift, he went on what he thought was a routine call - an 83-year-old man, living in a basement, with only a mattress, box springs and a television, all propped up on milk crates. The elderly gentleman had been neglected by his own children who were living upstairs, and was covered in his own feces and urine, with open bed sores. Tomaso was wearing latex gloves and a paper body isolation sheet as he moved the patient from the bed to the stretcher, but they did not protect his forearms, where he had scratches and cuts from his recent chore of cutting the hedges around his home.
Unfortunately, this did not turn out to be a routine call and it changed Tomaso's life forever. This is the call on which Tomaso believes he contracted Hepatitis C.
The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a growing epidemic in the United States and is a blood-borne infectious disease that is transmitted from person to person by blood or body fluid exposures. There is no known cure and there is no vaccination against Hepatitis C.
First reported in 1975, it was called non-Hepatitis A and B. It was not until 1989 that it was renamed Hepatitis C. No testing of blood products for Hepatitis C occurred until 1992. Most people who have contracted Hepatitis C did so through illegal drug use, blood transfusions, organ transplants, body piercing or tattooing, or sex with an HCV-infected person. There is also a high concentration of Hepatitis C among prisoners, HIV patients and intravenous drug users.
An estimated 4 million Americans are chronically infected and approximately 8,000 people die each year from Hepatitis C-related illnesses. The death rate is expected to triple in the next 20 years. Between 75% and 85% of people who contract Hepatitis C will develop a chronic disease, such as cancer or cirrhosis of the liver. While most of them contracted Hepatitis C through means already listed in this column, another cluster of contamination is found among public safety professionals who are exposed to blood and body fluids every day. Some of my previous columns discussed the situation with the Philadelphia Fire Department and the high incidence of firefighters and paramedics diagnosed with Hepatitis C and their efforts to have it recognized as an on-the-job injury.
Such is the case with Tomaso. Only recently, after a two-year battle and $124,000 in just prescription costs, besides all the medical costs, did the medical insurance company accept responsibility, but not liability for Tomaso's illness. As of this writing, the insurance company has not paid any of the bills.
Tomaso documented the exposure with the 83-year-old man, primarily for the living conditions and what he found so that it could be referred to a social agency. Little did he realize that the documentation would later be crucial in his worker's compensation case.
In November 2000, Tomaso suffered an on-the-job needlestick injury. As part of the procedure, baseline blood work was conducted to make sure he did not have a previous infectious disease. Although the patient involved in the needlestick incident was negative for any infectious disease, the baseline blood work did show that Tomaso had Hepatitis C.
Tomaso did not fit any of the risk profiles for contracting Hepatitis C except that he was a paramedic. The only other exposure he could recall was the 83-year-old man living in the basement. The family did confirm that the gentleman did have Hepatitis C, but refused to release his medical records.
Tomaso, who has been an emergency medical technician (EMT) since 1981 and a paramedic since 1998 in a variety of paid and volunteer positions, says the symptoms were always there - fatigue, loss of appetite and an occasional rash on his chest - but he always attributed them to a heavy call load. Never did he realize he had Hepatitis C.