Victim Removal

There may be occasions when the victim is found in an area above or below the ground level and equipment and apparatus not normally used for that purpose have to be placed in service. It is important that firefighters know how to use the techniques and...


There may be occasions when the victim is found in an area above or below the ground level and equipment and apparatus not normally used for that purpose have to be placed in service. It is important that firefighters know how to use the techniques and equipment to facilitate the rescue.

Downloadable Instructor's Guides

 

 

Session Reference:

 

Topic: Victim Removal

Time Required: 3 Hours

Materials:

 

  • GROUND LADDERS
  • BLANKETS
  • STOKES BASKETS
  • WEBBING
  • HARNESSES
  • CARABINERS
  • FIGURE EIGHTS
  • ASCENDERS
  • PULLEYS
  • PRUSSIC CORDS
  • SLINGS
  • BLOCKS
  • ROPE
  • REEVES SLEEVE
  • PICKETS
  • SLDEGE HAMMER
  • BASKET HARNESS
  • AERIAL APPARATUS

 

References:

 

  • RESCUE TECHNICIAN, MARYLAND FIRE AND RESCUE INSTITUTE, MOSBY
  • TECHNICAL RESCUE RIGGERS GUIDE, RICK LIPKE, MOUNTAIN RESCUE ASSOCIATION
  • AERIAL APPARATUS DRIVER/OPERATOR HANDBOOK, IFSTA

Preparation:

 

Motivation: There may be occasions when the victim is found in an area above or below the ground level and equipment and apparatus not normally used for that purpose have to be placed in service. It is important that firefighters know how to use the techniques and equipment to facilitate the rescue.

Objective (SPO): The student will demonstrate a basic understanding of removing packaged victims using ladders and mechanical advantage systems through participation in class discussion and practical activities.

Overview: Victim Removal

 

  • Ladder Rescue Systems
  • Vertical Lowering Techniques
  • Overland Victim Removal
  • Practical Activity

 

Instructors Notes: Instructor should review each skill with students who will have an opportunity to demonstrate proficiency during the practical portion of the session. The instructor may also need to review basic knots used in rescue, mechanical advantage systems, and ladder lifts, carries, and raises.


Victim Removal

 

 

SPO 1-1

 

EO 1-1
Demonstrate a knowledge of ladder systems used in rescue to raise or lower victims.

EO 1-2
Demonstrate a knowledge of vertical lowering techniques used to remove victims from above or below ground.

EO 1-3
Demonstrate a knowledge of the techniques used to raise and lower a victim overland.

EO 1-4
Demonstrate an understanding of victim removal systems by constructing ladder raising and lowering systems and moving a victim overland.


Instructional Guide

 

I. LADDER RESCUE SYSTEMS (1-1)

 

  • Ladder Gin
    • Lay the ladder on the ground
    • Select the two ropes to be used for support and guy lines
    • Form a figure eight on a bight in the middle of each rope
    • Attach a knot to each beam at the tip by going under the top rung and over the tip (one end of the rope on each side is used for hoisting/support and the other is used as a guy line)
    • Place the ladder heel on the rear step of the pumper using cribbing to protect the step
    • Attach a sling around the beams of the ladder with the ends passing over a rung, connect the two bights together with a carabiner, placed the rope through the opening in the pulley, and attach the pulley to the carabiner
    • Stretch the support lines out and raise the ladder to about 90 degrees
    • Secure the support lines to steamer connections on the pump
    • Secure the guy lines to the railings on the rear of the pumper
    • Form a loop in a piece of webbing and place it around one of the tow hooks on the back of the pumper
    • Place the lifting rope through a pulley and attach it to the webbing around the tow hook using a carabiner (change of direction pulley)
    • Test strength of system by pulling on the rope and observing angle of ladder which should not be below 75 degrees
    • Construct a mechanical advantage system to lift the load
    • Check all knots and carabiners to make sure they are secured
  • Ladder Sheerlegs
    • Lay the two ladders to be used side by side with tips even (or as even as possible)
    • Select the two ropes to be used for guy lines
    • Form figure eight on a bight in middle of each rope
    • Attach a knot to each beam at the tip by going under the top rung and over the beams of both ladders
    • Stretch out the guy lines to determined the location of pickets (two on each side) which are angled off to the tip of ladder and approximately the distance of the used length of the ladder and driven into ground 2/3 of length and 90-degree angle of the lines
    • Attach a sling to tip of ladder using both sets of beams by going around the beams with the ends dropping between the two sets of rungs
    • Connect two bights with a carabiner
    • Place the lifting rope through a pulley and attach it to the carabiner
    • Heal the ladder and raise it
    • Secure the heels of the ladder with pickets and rope (two for each side)
    • Test the strength of the system by pulling on the rope and observing the angle of the ladders (if it drops below 70 degrees, there is a possibility that the sheerlegs will collapse under a load)
    • Using webbing formed in a loop, attach a carabiner to the bottom rung on one side of the ladder
    • Pass the rope through a pulley and attach it to the carabiner (change of direction pulley)
    • Construct a mechanical advantage system to lift the load
    • Check all knots, pickets, slings, and carabiners to make sure they are secure
  • Aerial Ladder
    • Can be used as an elevated anchor point or lowering device
    • Victim can be carried or sled down ladder
  • Elevated Platform
    • Can be used as an elevated anchor point
    • Victim can be carried in basket
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