Victim Removal

There may be occasions when the victim is found in an area above or below the ground level and equipment and apparatus not normally used for that purpose have to be placed in service. It is important that firefighters know how to use the techniques and...


  • Simple system
    • Used for a very minor slope
    • Form a sling or piece of webbing in a loop around an anchor point
    • Pass the rope through a pulley and connect the pulley to the sling or webbing using a carabiner
    • Have personnel pull on the rope
    • Four to six rescuers can be attached to the rail
  • Z-rig
    • Identify two anchor points close together
    • Place a sling or piece of webbing in a loop around each
    • Pass a rope for each anchor through a figure eight
    • Attach the figure to the sling or webbing using a carabiner
    • Attach a prussic cord to each rope
    • Connect the prussic cord to the carabiner that is holding the figure eight
    • Rescuers can be lowered using figure eights (they should be wearing Class III harnesses)
    • Connect the rope to the packaging device
    • Engage the prussic cord, remove the figure eights and replace them with pulleys
    • Construct a Z-rig system on each lowering line
    • Use the Z-rig systems to raise the victim and rescuers (you may only need to use one Z-rig for this)
    • Basket can be pulled up by sliding it on the surface or four to six rescuers can be attached to the rail and carry it with the mechanical advantage system providing additional assistance
  • Piggyback System
    • Would be used in conjunction with the simple system when the load is too heavy or the slope is too steep for the simple system
    • Identify two anchor points close together
    • Secure the rope being used for the simple system to one
    • Place a sling or piece of webbing in a loop around each
    • Pass a rope for each anchor through a figure eight
    • Attach the figure to the sling or webbing using a carabiner
    • Attach a prussic cord to each rope
    • Connect the prussic cord to the carabiner that is holding the figure eight
    • Rescuers can be lowered using figure eights (they should be wearing Class III harnesses)
    • Engage the prussic cord, remove the figure eights and replace them with pulleys
    • Construct a Z-rig system on each lowering line
    • Attach one of the ropes from the Z-rig to the original hauling rope (the other may be used to raise the rescuers if they are not used to carry the patient)
    • Use the piggyback system to raise the victim and rescuers
    • Basket can be pulled up by sliding it on the surface or four to six rescuers can be attached to the rail and carry it with the mechanical advantage system providing additional assistance

 

IV. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY (1-4)

 

  • Set up four practical skills stations with an evaluator at each station to observe skills proficiency. Divide class evenly into groups. Allow no more than thirty minutes for each group at each station.
  • Station 1 - Vertical lower
    • Have the students, working as a group, package the "victim" in a stokes basket, SKED, or reeves sleeve and lower vertically using a ground ladder
    • A descent control device should be used for safety
  • Station 2 - Ladder gin
    • Have the students construct a ladder gin
    • Package the "victim" in a stokes basket, SKED, or reeves sleeve
    • Construct and operate a Z-rig mechanical advantage system
  • Station 3 - Ladder sheerlegs
    • Have the students construct a ladder sheerlegs
    • Package "victim" in a harness
    • Construct and operate a Z-rig mechanical advantage system
  • Station 4 - Overland system
    • Have students construct two descent controlled lowering lines
    • Lower the rescuers and equipment to the "victim"
    • Package "victim" in stokes basket, SKED< or reeves sleeve
    • Attach the victim to lowering line and prepare for raising
    • Replace the figure eight with a pulley and piggyback mechanical advantage system
    • Raise "victim" and rescuers

 

Optional: Aerial device vertical and/or horizontal raise and lower if equipment is available.

NOTE: All students are expected to perform all the practical skills to the satisfaction of the evaluators. Assistance should be provided when required.

 


Summary

 

Review:

Victim Removal

 

  • Ladder Rescue Systems
  • Vertical Lowering Techniques
  • Overland Victim Removal
  • Practical Activity

 

Remotivation: While these techniques are not used on a regular basis, they may be needed for rescue from a confined space, removal of an injured victim from a roof, or during a silo rescue. Regular practice will improve proficiency when called upon to used the skills.

Assignment:

 


 

Evaluation All students are expected to perform all the practical skills to the satisfaction of the evaluators. Assistance should be provided when required.

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