Patient Packaging

TOPIC: PATIENT PACKAGING

TIME REQUIRED: TWO HOURS

MATERIALS: BLANKETS, STOKES BASKETS, SKED STRETCHER, CARABINERS, WEBBING, ROPE, REEVES SLEEVE, COMMERCIAL BASKET HARNESS

REFERENCES: RESCUE TECHNICIAN, MOSBY

PREPARATION:

MOTIVATION:

Being able to package a patient for safe removal from above or below ground or over rough terrain in a timely and efficient manner may impact on the survivability of the patient. While these skills are learned sometime during fire service training, they are not used often. It is important to remain proficient in the event you are called upon to package a patient.

OBJECTIVE (SPO):

The student will demonstrate a basic understanding of packaging patients for removal from above or below ground through participation in class discussion and practical activities.

OVERVIEW:

Patient Packaging

   * Patient Packaging Devices

   * Vertical Lowering

   * Horizontal Lowering

   * Practical Activities

 

VICTIM REMOVAL

SPO: The student will demonstrate a basic understanding of packaging patients for removal from above or below ground through participation in class discussion and practical activities.

EO 1-1 Demonstrate a knowledge of patient packaging devices that can be used for transport of patients over roughed terrain

EO 1-2 Demonstrate a knowledge of patient packaging techniques for vertical lowering.

EO 1-3 Demonstrate a knowledge of patient packaging techniques for horizontal lowering

EO 1-4 Participate in practical activities to demonstrate patient packaging techniques.

Before beginning the material in this drill, it may be appropriate to review basic knots and rope and knot terminology.

 

I. PATIENT PACKAGING DEVICES (1-1)

NOTE: Instructor should review each skill with students who will have an opportunity to demonstrate proficiency during the practical portion of the session.

A. Stokes Basket

  1. Inspecting the basket

       a. Check the head (wider portion with side strapping closer to the end) of the basket to make sure

           that the weld is intact

       b. Check the foot (narrower portion with side strapping farther from the end) of the basket to

           make sure that the weld is intact

       c. Check the condition of the railing

       d. Check the strapping around the rail to make sure that it is secure and in good condition

       e. Check the wire to make sure that it is flat and will not harm the victim

       f. Check the strapping on the underside to make sure that it is flat

  2. Blanketing

      a. First blanket is laid crossways at the head portion of the basket with about one foot extending

          beyond the top of the basket

      b. The portion that extends beyond the top edge of the basket is folded over so that the folded

          edge is even with the top of the basket (this provides additional cushioning for the head)

      c. The second blanket is placed in the basket lengthwise with about one foot extending beyond the

          bottom of the basket

      d. The corners on the top blanket are folded to a 45-degree angle with the upper corner at the

          edge of the basket rail

       e. After the victim is placed in the basket, the portion of the bottom blanket extending beyond the

           bottom of the basket is folded back to cover the victim’s feet

       f. The two sides of the bottom blanket are folded inward to cover the victim

       g. The two sides of the top blanket are folded inward to cover the victim (check to make sure that

           the blanket does not cover the victim’s face)

  3. Lashing into basket

      a. Requires approximately forty feet of rope or webbing

      b. Find the middle of rope or webbing and form a foot stirrup by making a round turn around the

          victim’s feet, taking one standing part and pulling it over the other standing part, and placing one

          standing part in the victim’s instep

      c. Snug up the rope or webbing coming out of the foot stirrup

      d. Take one part of the rope or webbing to each side of the first “D” and around the large strap

         (do not allow rope to cross over the top rail except when completing the lashing)

      e. Continue the process of crossing the rope or webbing over the victim from feet to shoulders

          using the straps while making sure the rope or webbing is snug

      f. At the shoulders, form a split clove hitch around the rail on each side by having the large strap

         between the two turns of the clove hitch

      g. Finish each knot by putting a safety in the rope or webbing using an overhand knot

      h. Excess rope or webbing is placed beside the victim on the inside of the basket

B. Reeves Sleeve or SKED Stretcher

  1. Inspecting the stretcher

      a. Check to make sure the material is not damaged

      b. Check to make sure grommets and straps are in place

  2. Blanketing

      a. One blanket is sufficient for use with the SKED stretcher

      b. Place the blanket lengthwise in the stretcher

      c. Fold the upper corners on a 45-degree angle so that they do not cover the victim’s face

      d. Once the victim is placed in the stretcher, fold the two sides inward to cover the victim

  3. Lashing the stretcher

      a. Start at the top by connecting the two ends of each strap

      b. At the feet, fold the foot flap back covering the feet

      c. Feed the straps for the foot flap through the grommet on the respective side and connect the two

          ends (SKED) or connect the two ends of the strap (Reeves)

      d. Fold the head flap over to protect the victim’s face

      e. Wrap the dragging rope around the chest strap to hold the flap in place (watch that the edge of

           the flap does not hit the victim in the face) (SKED)

 

II. VERTICAL LOWERING (1-2)

A. Stokes Basket

  1. Form a figure eight knot approximately six feet from the end of the rope

  2. Wrap the rope around the rail of basket starting at right strap and going to left strap

  3. Reweave the working end of the rope back through the figure eight knot

  4. Attach a tag line to each side of basket near the lower end using a figure eight reweave knot  

      (NOTE: If only one tag line is used, the basket may rotate as the victim is being lowered)

B. Reeves Sleeve or SKED Stretcher

  1. Attach a rope to the ring on vertical strap using a figure eight reweave knot (Reeves Sleeve)

  2. Form a figure-eight-on-a-bight in the middle of the rope provided with the stretcher (SKED)

  3. Pass one end of the rope through grommet on each side at the head (SKED)

  4. Adjust the knot so that it is about six inches from the head of the stretcher (SKED)

  5. Continue to pass the rope through the open grommets on each side going from inside outward (do

      not cross the rope over the victim as it will drawn the stretcher tight around the victim) (SKED)

  6. At the foot, pass the rope through the open grommet and join the two ends of the rope together

      using a square knot or figure eight bend (SKED)

  7. Take the excess rope and go back to the last set of handles (SKED)

  8. Pass the rope through the respective handles and join the ends together using a square knot or

      figure eight bend (SKED)

  9. Attach a tag line to each side of the foot end of stretcher using a figure eight reweave (SKED)

NOTE: The victim should be lowered feet first only as they will slide out of the packaging device otherwise.

 

III. HORIZONTAL LOWERING (1-3)

A. Stokes Basket

  1. Attach a commercial harness in the “D” near shoulders and feet on the basket with the hooks

      pointing outward

  2. Adjust the ring on the harness so that it is centered over the basket or so that the head is slightly

      elevated

  3. Attach a figure eight reweave knot to the ring on the harness

  4. Attach a tag line to foot end of basket using a figure eight reweave knot

B. Reeves Sleeve or SKED Stretcher

  1. Reeves sleeve

      a. Attach a commercial harness to the “D” rings at the four corners of the stretcher with the hooks

          pointing outward

      b. Adjust the ring on the harness so that it is centered over the stretcher or so that the head is

          slightly elevated

      c. Attach a figure eight reweave knot to the ring on the harness

      d. Attach a tag line to the foot end of the stretcher using a figure eight reweave knot

  2. SKED stretcher

      a. Locate the two straps that accompany the stretcher and identify the head strap

      b. Pass the head strap through the two slots on the side of the stretcher from the outside inward

      c. Pass the foot strap through the two slots on the side from the outside inward

      d. Adjust the straps as needed so that the ends are even

       e. Attach a carabiner to the four ends of the straps

       f. Attach a figure eight on a bight knot to the carabiner

       g. Attach tag line to the foot end of stretcher using figure eight reweave knot

 

IV. PRACTICAL ACTIVITES (1-4)

A. Set up four practical skills stations with an evaluator at each station to observe skills proficiency. Divide class evenly into groups.. Depending on the size of the group, you may want to duplicate stations to keep the size of each group at a manageable level.

B. Station 1 – Patient Packaging Using Stokes and Vertical Lower

  1. Place the blankets in the basket

  2. Place the victim in the basket

  3. Blanket the victim

  4. Lash the victim in the basket

  5. Secure the lowering rope and tag line to the basket

C. Station 2 – Patient Packaging Using Stokes and Horizontal Lower

  1. Place the blankets in the basket

  2. Place the victim in the basket

  3. Blanket the victim

  4. Lash the victim in the basket

  5. Secure the harness and tag line to the basket

D. Station 3 – Patient Packaging Using Reeves/SKED and Vertical Lower

  1. Place the blanket on the stretcher

  2. Place the victim on the stretcher

  3. Blanket the victim

  4. Lash the victim in the stretcher

  5. Secure the lowering rope and tag line to the stretcher

E. Station 4 – Patient Packaging Using Reeves/SKED and Horizontal Lower

  1. Place the blanket on the stretcher

  2. Place the victim on the stretcher

  3. Blanket the victim

  4. Lash the victim in the stretcher

  5. Place the lowering straps or commercial harness on the stretcher

  6. Secure the lowering rope and tag line to the stretcher

NOTE: All students are expected to perform all the practical skills to the satisfaction of the evaluators. Assistance should be provided when required.

 

REVIEW:

Patient Packaging

   * Patient Packaging Devices

   * Vertical Lowering

   * Horizontal Lowering

   * Practical Activities

REMOTIVATION: It important to practice the skills covered by this drill on a regular basis so that you will be prepared to respond when needed. The emergency scene should not be the training ground.

EVALUATION:

All students are expected to perform all the practical skills to the satisfaction of the evaluators. Assistance should be provided when required.

 

 

 

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