Engineering Roundtable

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In November 2005, Firehouse® Magazine asked fire apparatus manufacturers to join a roundtable addressing the important issue of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2007 vehicle emissions standards. As a follow-up, we recently asked apparatus, chassis and engine manufacturers to address specific issues centering on engine construction, chassis and cab modifications, fuel consumption and other performance issues, and availability of replacement parts for pre-2007 engines. We thank the companies that participated in this roundtable and invite all apparatus and component manufacturers to participate in upcoming exchanges of important information.

AMERICAN LAFRANCE
Doug Kelley
Corporate Sales Coordinator - American LaFrance

Firehouse: With the development of new engines to meet the 2007 federal emissions standards, will their size remain the same or will they require more or less room on the chassis?

Kelley: These answers were developed after consultation with Steve Reed, American LaFrance’s chassis engineering manager.

EPA2007 will cause the engine size to increase. The block sizes will remain the same, but the additional heat-rejection requirement to meet the stringent EPA2007 mandate will cause parts of the air intake, exhaust and cooling systems on the engine to change. For example, turbochargers are changing and, for the most part, getting larger. Therefore, in total, an EPA2007 engine will take up more room than its counterpart engine today.

Firehouse: Please describe any anticipated changes in horsepower, fuel consumption, exhaust or other performance factors. Also, are there any new benefits or problems that fire apparatus buyers should be aware of?

Kelley: EPA2007 engines will get slightly heavier due to added components. Performance changes will depend on the specific engine. Almost all of the horsepower/torque ratings that the customers are used to today will be carried over, and there will also be some additional ones introduced. However, the engine manufacturers are changing their power and torque curves. This may mean a slight degradation in certain operating conditions, again depending on the engine. This will also change fuel consumption rate. Exhaust, however, will be much cleaner, with an almost total elimination of soot.

The main benefit to the user is the elimination of “blue-smoke†issues that many departments complain about. Conversely, there will be a cost penalty for the new engines, after-treatment devices, cab redesigns, cooling package upgrades and electrical system changes required to meet EPA2007 certification.

Firehouse: How long after the changeover to new engines will parts be available for existing engines?

Kelley: Engine manufacturers should have parts available for service at the onset of EPA2007 engine introduction. Parts for existing engines will continue to be available for the foreseeable future. Cummins


Cyndi Nigh
Manager/On-Highway Communications - Cummins Inc.

Firehouse: With the development of new engines to meet the 2007 federal emissions standards, will their size remain the same or will they require more or less room on the chassis?

Nigh: In 2007, Cummins will continue to offer a full range of engines for the fire and emergency vehicle market from the ISB, ISC, ISL to the ISM and ISX. In 2007, Cummins will use a common emissions reduction approach – proven cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), an integrated Cummins Particulate Filter, Variable Geometry Turbo (VGT) and crankcase ventilation – across all automotive engines. We will add cooled EGR to the ISC and ISL models. The engine envelope will increase slightly in 2007 over today’s product due to necessary hardware.

Firehouse: Please describe any anticipated changes in horsepower, fuel consumption, exhaust or other performance factors. Also, are there any new benefits or problems that fire apparatus buyers should be aware of?

Nigh: Performance of Cummins’ 2007 engines will be better than or equal to today. Horsepower has been increased on three of five engine models for the fire and emergency vehicle market.

ISB – We increased displacement from 5.9L to 6.7L. We also increased the top rating for specialty vehicles (includes fire truck, emergency vehicles and RVs) from 325 hp/620 lb-ft to 350 hp/750 lb-ft. torque. Increased power and torque means the ISB is suitable for more fire and emergency applications, such as ambulance and rescue.

ISC – We increased the top rating for specialty vehicles from 330 hp/950 lb-ft torque to 360 hp/1,050 lb-ft torque.

ISL – We increased the top rating for specialty vehicles from 400 hp/1,200 lb-ft torque to 425 hp/1,200 lb-ft torque.

ISM – Same maximum rating of 500 hp in 2007 as today.

ISX – Same rating (525 hp) in 2007 as today.

The 2007 engine and after-treatment system is designed and integrated for optimum performance. There will be no impact on driveability. Feedback from our end-user field tests has been very positive. One fleet reports that their drivers ask for and prefer the performance of the 2007 engine.

Fuel consumption of Cummins 2007 engines will be comparable to today. Cummins 2007 engines will provide proven reliability and durability, same or better performance, fuel efficiency comparable to today and service intervals unchanged from today.

The increased horsepower and torque of the ISB means it is suitable for more applications, such as ambulance and rescue vehicles. The ISB will have an oil-level-sensor option that automatically checks the oil level when the engine is turned on. Also, there will be an 18-quart oil-pan option, which allows oil drains to be extended to 20,000 miles/550 hours.

The variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) on the ISB, ISC and ISL standard options will have the capability to function as an exhaust brake (without the additional cost of an exhaust brake) if the OEM equips the vehicle with the appropriate wiring. In addition, the ISC will offer a compression brake as an option. Both the ISC and ISL will offer an oil-level-sensor option.

Firehouse: How long after the changeover to new engines will parts be available for existing engines?

Nigh: Cummins is committed to serving its customers. Cummins distributor and dealer network throughout North America will maintain parts for current engines.


DETROIT DIESEL
Richard Shearing
Manager /Heavy-Duty On-Highway Application Engineering - Detroit Diesel Corp.

Firehouse: With the development of new engines to meet the 2007 federal emissions standards, will their size remain the same or will they require more or less on the chassis?

Shearing: The engine has grown in width slightly over the current production engine. However, careful planning and working with the OEMs has minimized the impact on the cab design such that it will be unnoticeable to the end user.

Firehouse: Please describe any anticipated changes in horsepower, fuel consumption, exhaust or other performance factors. Also are there any new benefits or problems that fire apparatus buyers should be aware of?

Shearing: The 2007 Series 60 horsepower offering will be very similar to what we have today. The Series 60 will be a 14.0L displacement only as we will not offer a 12.7L displacement in 2007 for this engine. As a result, our 1,350-lb. ft. torque ratings will no longer be offered. Fuel consumption is comparable to that of today’s engines. At Detroit Diesel, we pride ourselves on being a fuel economy leader with our Series 60 and expect to retain that position in 2007. The exhaust system is undergoing significant changes to accommodate the after-treatment system, which is needed to meet the 2007 emissions standards.

Firehouse: How long after the changeover to new engines will parts be available for existing engines?

Shearing: Detroit Diesel will continue to offer parts for the current engines as long as they are running in the field. If you look to one of our flagship engines – our two-cycle engines, which have been around for decades – we continue to proudly offer parts for those engines as there are still several hundred thousand in use today.


HACKNEY EMERGENCY VEHICLES
Eddie L. Smith
Director Sales & Marketing - Hackney Emergency Vehicles

Firehouse: With the development of new engines to meet the 2007 federal emissions standards, will their size remain the same or will they require more or less room on the chassis?

Smith: Engine sizes will not change; however, the envelope for related engine components associated with the emissions systems will increase. With the data that the chassis manufacturers have released, we do not see any insurmountable obstacles that would cause any major changes to how body components would be integrated. There will be some space constraints that will limit PTO placements and some options normally installed under the cab may have to be relocated due to proximity of higher heat associated with the catalytic converter. The obvious major difference the purchaser will see is a huge price increase over the cost of 2006 models.


INTERNATIONAL
Bob Neitzel
Fire/Rescue Segment Manager - International Truck and Engine Corp.

Firehouse: With the development of new engines to meet the 2007 federal emissions standards, will their size remain the same or will they require more or less room on the chassis?

Neitzel: The International 2007 engines do not have any major changes to the configuration and the “envelope†of our engines really don’t change. Our heating exchange modules (radiator, charge air cooler, fan, etc.) are larger and changes will be made to the hood /front end to accommodate the larger components.

Firehouse: Please describe any anticipated changes in horsepower, fuel consumption, exhaust or other performance factors. Also, are there any new benefits or problems that fire apparatus buyers should be aware of?

Neitzel: The current horsepower ratings will be available as well as some higher horsepower ratings. Fuel economy is better on the V8 engine and a little lower on the I6 engines. Most customers in fire and rescue vocations will not notice much economy difference.

Firehouse: How long after the changeover to new engines will parts be available for existing engines?

Neitzel: Engine replacement parts guideline is 10-year minimum, most parts closer to 20-plus years.


PIERCE
Tom Decoster
Director of Engineering and New Product Development - Pierce Manufacturing Inc.

Neil Engel
Director of New Product Development - Pierce Manufacturing Inc.

Firehouse: With the development of new engines to meet the 2007 federal emissions standards, will their size remain the same or will they require more or less room on the chassis?

Decoster and Engel: In general, the new engines will have a larger footprint in the truck than current engines. Turbos on the new engines are required to function differently than on the current engines, and have actuation systems that cause the engines to be wider. The amount of heat that is rejected to the engine coolant and the charged air cooling system is increasing, and this will cause the size of the radiator and charge air cooler to increase if not currently capable to accommodate this change. The size of the exhaust systems will be larger as the new system will include a diesel oxidation catalyst, a diesel particulate filter and muffler. Along with the change in size of the exhaust system, OEMs will be limited in the flexibility to move the muffler as the exhaust temperature and pressure will play an important role in the function of the new system.

Firehouse: Please describe any anticipated changes in horsepower, fuel consumption, exhaust or other performance factors. Also, are there any new benefits or problems that fire apparatus buyers should be aware of?

Decoster and Engel: Horsepower ratings for new engines will typically be the same as what is offered today. New engines will require ultra-low-sulfur fuel, which may have a small impact on fuel consumption. Also, the new engines use the fuel in various ways in the exhaust system to create heat for turning the soot captured in the diesel particulate filter to ash during a process called regeneration. This will also cause a small increase in fuel consumption. The regeneration process will be new on the 2007 engines and will happen in two ways – “passive†and “active.†“Passive†regeneration will occur naturally when exhaust temperatures, typically during over-the-road transit, cause the soot captured in the diesel particulate filter to be converted to ash with no intervention by the engine. “Active†regeneration occurs when the engine senses that the diesel particulate filter is reaching its soot capacity and utilizes the systems installed on the engine and exhaust system to raise the exhaust temperatures to cause the conversion of the soot to ash. When the ash builds up within the diesel particulate filter, the truck will need to be serviced by the engine manufacturer’s service center to either swap or remove and clean the filter. The new engines will require ultra-low-sulfur fuel and low-ash oil.

While not readily available in all areas today, the EPA has mandates in place for the oil industry to make sure that the fuel will be available by fall 2006. Both the ultra-low-sulfur fuel and the low-ash oil are required to minimize the amount of soot that will build up in the diesel particulate filter. Customers who have their own fueling stations and perform their own maintenance need to consider these two items as we move into 2007. The use of the ultra-low-sulfur fuel and low-ash oils in current engines is acceptable, but you will want to make the transition at the same time.

Finally, the need for ultra-low-sulfur fuel will create additional considerations for export fire truck sales, as not all countries will have this fuel available. The engine manufacturers have committed to making non-2007 EPA-certified engines available for these export sales.

Firehouse: How long after the changeover to new engines will parts be available for existing engines?

Decoster and Engel: The availability of service parts for existing, non-2007 EPA certified engines will not be impacted.


ROSENBAUER AMERICA
Tim Klein
MIS/Engineering - Rosenbauer America

Roger Rutgers
Senior Design Engineer - Rosenbauer America

Firehouse: With the development of new engines to meet the 2007 federal emissions standards, will their size remain the same or will they require more or less room on the chassis?

Klein and Rutgers: As we at Rosenbauer America understand the requirements and the compliance with it, there will be some differences between engine manufacturers. Caterpillar engines will require slightly more room due to the use of series turbochargers. We expect the other manufacturers’ engines’ physical size requirements to remain about the same size as they now are. All the manufacturers will be required to have larger radiators to handle heat rejection from the higher temperatures generated by the engines and the emission controls. The particulate regeneration systems in the exhaust system of all engine manufacturers will require some extra room, but mainly under the bodies of the trucks.

Firehouse: Please describe any anticipated changes in horsepower, fuel consumption, exhaust or other performance factors. Also, are there any new benefits or problems that fire apparatus buyers should be aware of?

Klein and Rutgers: Generally, you can expect to see virtually no change in horsepower and fuel consumption. Mercedes has indicated that they may lower the torque ratings of their engines slightly to lower the amount of heat generated.

The particulate regeneration systems are similar to a muffler and catalytic converter combined with a self-cleaning oven. The system traps the particulates in the exhaust. When the particulate trap is full, the particulate regeneration systems will activate using high temperatures to remove the particulates. All the systems raise the temperature inside the exhaust system up to about 1,200 degrees to burn off the particulates. The external component temperatures are supposed to remain the same as now, around 500 degrees.

This regeneration heating is done in various ways, depending on the engine manufacturer and the truck application. Some are automatic, but most are triggered by the operator when a restriction indicator light illuminates. Some engine manufacturers require the truck to be stationary and some are requiring the truck remain in motion during the process, which lasts about 30 minutes. It is expected that about once a year the regeneration cycle will need to be run. Eventually, the particulate trap of the system will require servicing or replacement by a certified service centers at a service interval that will be set by the engine manufacturer based on mileage or hours of service in the fire service’s case. For over-the-road trucks, this may be between 100,000 and 150,000 miles. We have not received information yet on how this will convert to hours for the fire service. Things like this always affect the budget. Expect an increased purchase cost somewhere in the range of $7,000 to $15,000, depending on motor size.

A few minor changes – the new emissions standards require that the complete exhaust systems will be engineered by the engine and chassis manufacturers and no modifications will be allowed. Another is that an ultra-low-sulfur fuel will be required, and oil that is low ash and can handle the higher temperatures will be necessary.

Firehouse: How long after the changeover to new engines will parts be available for existing engines?

Klein and Rutgers: Parts should be available for at least the expected life of the engine, 25-30 years. For parts availability, the history of the engine manufacturers is a good place to look when answering this question.


SEAGRAVE
Nathan Nick
Director of Engineering - Seagrave Fire Apparatus

Firehouse: With the development of new engines to meet the 2007 federal emissions standards, will their size remain the same or will they require more or less room on the chassis?

Nick: All indications show that the engines will grow in size due to the turbo locations, exhaust routing and the higher heat rejection numbers. I anticipate once the ancillary options are designed, the engine suppliers may have alternatives for fire truck OEMs for the above items, to allow a tighter package. Seagrave is working on some unique options to leave the engine tunnel the same size as the current engines, and also utilize some different configurations for cooling the engine.

Firehouse: Please describe any anticipated changes in horsepower, fuel consumption, exhaust or other performance factors. Also, are there any new benefits or problems that fire apparatus buyers should be aware of?

Nick: Early indications show that some horsepower ratings will increase for fire truck OEMs; however, we are anticipating that the fuel consumption will be greater on the 2007 engines. Field testing is currently underway on 2007 engines and we are learning more weekly on this issue.

The biggest issue that we are facing, other than the increased heat rejection, is the dosing of the exhaust system to burn off contaminants. There are studies going on by the engine OEMs to look at a controlled regeneration of the system versus an automatic regeneration of the system. Due to the short runs of fire apparatus, the automatic dosing may present problems. The exhaust system will reach temperatures upward of 1,500 degrees Fahrenheit, which could cause issues responding to grass fires, and actually affecting the blacktop if parked for a period of time. Of course, the biggest benefit for the general public is cleaner-burning engines, emitting much less contaminants into the atmosphere.

Firehouse: How long after the changeover to new engines will parts be available for existing engines?

Nick: This is a question for the engine OEMs. Due to on-highway EPA restrictions, we are facing the NOX reduction sooner than some of the off-highway industries. What this means is the engines we are currently purchasing today may be available to other industries for some time, probably until 2009. At this point, after-market sales is a big part of the engine suppliers’ profit margin, so expectations would be that parts would be available from them for at least seven to 10 years. The engine manufacturers work with the EPA on remanufactured engines and what improvements may be made under these circumstances.


SPARTAN
Martin H. Comer
Chief Engineer/Fire Trucks and Specialty Vehicles - Spartan Chassis

Firehouse: With the development of new engines to meet the 2007 federal emissions standards, will their size remain the same or will they require more or less room on the chassis?

Comer: Based on the initial design analysis, the new engines are not projected to take up more space in the chassis than current engines. Spartan Chassis has lobbied engine suppliers to maintain the envelope of the new engines inside the current engine tunnel of the cab, where they have the biggest impact on our products. These efforts have proven to be reasonably successful. However, the engines will be located closer to the underside of the tunnels, thus requiring more sophisticated shielding methods to minimize heat transfer, while maintaining the maximized interior cab space.

Firehouse: Please describe any anticipated changes in horsepower, fuel consumption, exhaust or other performance factors. Also, are there any new benefits or problems that fire apparatus buyers should be aware of?

Comer: Vehicle performance information obtained by Spartan Chassis is based on data supplied by engine manufacturers. At this stage, the horsepower options available cover increases from current ratings and reductions, based on engine size. Exhaust temperatures will increase, at which the levels are subject to refinements of the emissions control systems for each engine manufacturer. It is envisaged that these increases will not adversely affect the operation of the vehicle in the various modes the vehicles undergo as part of their daily life cycle.

There are a number of benefits to customers with these new engines, including: full compression brake capability on some of the smaller engines (previously not available), higher horsepower and torque options, and the overall cleanliness of the emissions will be considerably improved.

Aspects of the vehicles’ SOP will need to be adjusted to accommodate the final format of the regeneration processes as they evolve over the introductory period.

Firehouse: How long after the changeover to new engines will parts be available for existing engines?

Comer: The availability of parts for the new engines is an area best addressed by the engine manufacturers, as they control the supply and distribution of parts for their engines. However, Spartan Chassis will be working with its suppliers well into the future to ensure full customer support for its products.


WARD DIESEL
John Meier
Owner - Ward Diesel

Firehouse: With the development of new engines to meet the 2007 federal emissions standards, will their size remain the same or will they require more or less room on the chassis?

Meier: Due to environmental mandates by the EPA, new 2007 trucks will be equipped with an exhaust after-treatment device (ATD) that reduces particulate emissions for the environment but not toxic gaseous matter in the firehouse, as measured by OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs).

NO SMOKE 2007 is an exciting new product improvement and enhancement by Ward Diesel Filter Systems. The new high-performance substrate with proprietary wash coat removes gaseous matter on 2007-model engines. The 2007-model engines address emissions for the environment. NO SMOKE 2007 provides the clean air you need in the firehouse, within the enclosed structure, for an important health and safety upgrade.

Firehouse: Please describe any anticipated changes in horsepower, fuel consumption, exhaust or other performance factors. Also, are there any new benefits or problems that fire apparatus buyers should be aware of?

Meier: Exhaust temperatures on 2007-model engines and beyond are between 250 and 300 degrees hotter. The NO SMOKE 2007 will not be compromised in any way due to these hotter temperatures. The substrate was designed for new diesel exhaust temperatures and far exceeds any temperatures seen on board a mobile diesel engine. Users of hanging exhaust hose systems should be advised that these hotter exhaust temperatures could compromise the structural integrity of the hose, if not melt it.

Firehouse: How long after the changeover to new engines will parts be available for existing engines?

Meier: As the Cummins, Detroit Diesel and Caterpillar engines have upgraded, Ward Diesel Filter Systems has upgraded their product offerings as well. The NO SMOKE filter system can continue to be installed on vehicles with engines built prior to 2007. The NO SMOKE 2007 substrate was specifically designed for 2007-model engines and beyond, but it can also be retrofitted to older vehicles. The installation of either NO SMOKE or NO SMOKE 2007 will not void any engine warranty and it in no way violates any law or directive of any agency, whether it be federal, state or local.

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