Are You Putting Enough Wet Stuff On The Red Stuff?

TOPIC: ARE YOU PUTTING ENOUGH WET STUFF ON THE RED STUFF? TIME REQUIRED: TWO HOURS MATERIALS: APPROPRIATE AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS REFERENCES: ENGINE COMPANY FIREGROUND OPERATIONS, SECOND EDITION, NFPA; ESSENTIALS OF FIRE FIGHTING, FOURTH...


TOPIC: ARE YOU PUTTING ENOUGH WET STUFF ON THE RED STUFF?

TIME REQUIRED: TWO HOURS

MATERIALS: APPROPRIATE AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS

REFERENCES: ENGINE COMPANY FIREGROUND OPERATIONS, SECOND EDITION, NFPA; ESSENTIALS OF FIRE FIGHTING, FOURTH EDITION, IFSTA; FIRE ATTACK 1 AND 2, WARREN Y. KIMBALL, NFPA

PREPARATION:

MOTIVATION: Selecting the proper size attack line and nozzle in relation to the volume of fire and potential heat production can be a challenge. Such knowledge generally comes from experience. Unfortunately, we may be having less fire from which to gain this knowledge. We also cannot use the fire scene as a testing laboratory to determine the proper size line and nozzle to be used for a given incident.

OBJECTIVE (SPO):

The firefighter will demonstrate a general knowledge of the factors affecting fire development; the water flow necessary to control a structural fire, and nozzle selection and use.

OVERVIEW:

ARE YOU PUTTING ENOUGH WET STUFF ON THE RED STUFF?

   * Fuel Loading

   * Fire Flow Requirements

   * Handlines and Master Streams

ARE YOU PUTTING ENOUGH WET STUFF ON THE RED STUFF?

SPO: The firefighter will demonstrate a general knowledge of the factors affecting fire development; the water flow necessary to control a structural fire, and nozzle selection and use.

EO 3-1 Describe the concept of fuel loading and its effect on fire size and spread.

EO 3-2 Using various methods to determine production of heat, identify the rate of water flow necessary to control fire in a room of specified size.

EO 3-3 Describe the appropriate number, size, and placement of fire streams needed to deliver the required fire flow at structural fires.

I. FUEL LOADING (3-1)

  A. Review of fire travel

       1. Convection - travel of heat through motion of heated matter

            a. Smoke

            b. Hot air

            c. Heated gases

            d. Flying embers

       2. Radiation - travel of heat through space (electromagnetic waves)

            a. Unaffected by wind

            b. Radiated evenly in all directions

            c. Travel blocked by solid surfaces

       3. Conduction - travel of heat though a solid body

             a. Class A materials generally easier to ignite and produce approximately 8,000 BTU's of heat

                 per cubic foot

             b. Class B materials more difficult to ignite but produce approximately 16,000 BTU's of heat

                 per cubic foot

 B. Fuel Loading

       1. Consists of interior surfaces, furnishings, and contents for interior fires

       2. Exterior surfaces when fire has extended

       3. Factors affecting fuel loading

             a. Type of fuel involved

             b. Quantity of fuel

             c. Arrangement of fuel

      4. Types of fuel

             a. Through walls and floors by way of pipes, metal girders and joists

             b. May cause steel building and roof supports to collapse

 

II. FIRE FLOW REQUIREMENTS (3-2)

NOTE: In each of the examples below, a typical size room for a residential structure (13 ft. x 16 ft. 8 ft) is being used for illustration and comparison purposes.

  A. Theoretical Method Developed by Iowa State University

      1. Heat produced or accumulated in a structure fire is limited by the available oxygen supply to

          support combustion

      2. Accumulation of BTU’s in vented areas will balance to the calculated heat production level for

         confined areas due to the escape of hot gases and incoming fresh air

      3. One cubic foot of oxygen will produce 535 BTU’s of heat

           a. Normal air - 21% oxygen content

           b. Flame production arrested at 14% oxygen content

           c. Oxygen available for producing heat - 7%

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