Are You Putting Enough Wet Stuff On The Red Stuff?

TOPIC: ARE YOU PUTTING ENOUGH WET STUFF ON THE RED STUFF? TIME REQUIRED: TWO HOURS MATERIALS: APPROPRIATE AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS REFERENCES: ENGINE COMPANY FIREGROUND OPERATIONS, SECOND EDITION, NFPA; ESSENTIALS OF FIRE FIGHTING, FOURTH...


  A. Initial Attack

      1. Methods of attack

            a. Direct – water is applied in short bursts directly on the burning fuels until the fire is darkened

               down

            b. Indirect – Used when firefighters are unable to enter the fire area due to intense heat to

                direct a stream from outside the fire area at the ceiling and played back and forth in the

                superheated gases at the ceiling level

           c. Combination – uses the steam-generating technique of ceiling-level attack combined with a

               direct attack on burning materials at lower levels

       2. Solid streams versus fog streams

            a. For safest and most effective operation where people in area, solid stream or fog nozzle on

                straight stream position should be used

                      1) Aid rescue

                      2) Reduce steam production

             b. Use of fog should be restricted to unoccupied confined spaces to avoid steam occupants

             c. When the building is adequately ventilated in the direction opposite from fog nozzle, fog

                 stream can be used

                     1) No more than 30-degree angle

                     2) Produces reach and fog pattern

             d. Fog streams produce greater heat absorption and quicker fire suppression along with

                 greater steam production

             e. Solid streams produce greater reach and penetration as well as less steam

        3. Effective stream operation

             a. Use solid stream nozzles or set fog nozzles on straight stream or narrow fog setting to

                 minimize upsetting the thermal balance

             b. Stay low upon entering fire area to let heat and gases vent before moving in

             c. Before the door to the fire area opened, all firefighters should be positioned on same side of

                the entrance and remain low

            d. Crack the nozzle and bleed the air out of line ahead of the water

            e. If fire shows at the top of the door as it is opened, the ceiling should be hit with a stream to

               cool and control fire gases

            f. Sweep the floor with the stream to cool burning debris and hot surfaces

            g. Do not open the nozzle until the fire can be hit unless firefighter safety is involved

            h. Direct the stream at the base of the fire if localized

            i. As the advance is made, the angle of the stream should be lowered and an attempt made to

              hit the main body of fire

           j. When the main body of fire is knocked down, shut down the stream and let the area vent

           k. When the fire is knocked down, shut down the nozzle and move in to overhaul

           l. Upon entering an area which is very hot and finding no fire, withdraw immediately and check

              the area below

          m. When attacking a basement fire down using the interior stairs, a straight or narrow stream

               should be used because fog will generate steam

          n. Do not attack a fire from opposing directions because it will push the heat on the other crew

          o. Do not conduct an exterior fire attack while an interior attack is still being conducted

          p. Keep the fire in front of the nozzle and avoid letting the fire cut off the path of escape

          q. Know where crew members are before initiating the attack to avoid having someone in an